AP Human Geo Unit 4 Vocab

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Balkanization
The breakup of Yugoslavia into smaller ethnically similar countries.
Binational or Multinational State
A state that contains more than one nation.
Boundary
An invisible line that marks the extent if a state`s territory and the control that its leaders have.
Centripetal Force
Unifies nation-states.
Centrifugal Force
Tends to fragment nation-states.
Cold War
The competition between two superpowers. (Unites States and the Soviet Union)
Colonies
Dependent areas.
Command Economy
Had socialist principles of centralized planning and state ownership are fading from existence.
Compact States
The distance from the center to any boundary is about the same, giving it a shape similar to a circle. Compactness promotes good communications among all regions.
Confederal System
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Consequent Boundaries
Another names for Cultural Boundary.
Core Area
The area where a nation state began.
Core-Periphery
The outlying area outside of the core.
Cultural Boundary
Boundaries set by ethnic differences especially language and religion. The are also called consequent boundaries.
Democratization
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Devolution
The transfer of some important powers from central governments to sub-governments.
Positional Dispute
Occur when states argue about the border actually is. (Definitional Disputes)
Territorial Dispute
Arise over the ownership of a region, usually around mutual borders.
Resource Dispute
Involve natural resources that lie in border areas. (Allocational Disputes)
Functional Dispute
Arise when neighboring sates cannot agree in policies that apply in a border area. (Operational Disputes)
Economic Force
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Electoral Geogrpahy
The study of how the spatial configuration or electoral districts and voting patterns reflect and influence social and political affairs.
Elongated State
Have a long, narrow shape sometimes because of physical geography and other times for a political or economic reason.
Encalves
Are landlocked in another country, so that the country totally surrounds it.
Exclaves
Small bits or territory that lie on coasts separated from the state by territory of another state.
Ethnic Force
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Ethonationalism
The tendency for an ethnic group to see itself as a distinct nation with a right to autonomy or independence.
European Constitution
Mark an important recognition of the EU`s sovereignty.
European Monetary Union
Europe`s new central bank.
European Union
A regional organization that promises to redefine the meaning of sovereignty.
Federal System
Divides the power between the central government and the sub-units.
Forward Capital
If the capital city serves as a model for national objectives, especially for economic development and future hopes, it is sometimes called this.
Fragmentation
Divisions based on ethnic or cultural identity.
Fragmented States
Theses states have several pieces of discontinous territory. Any state that is composed of island is considered this type of state.
Frontiers
A geographic zone where no state exercises power
Geometric Boundaries
Straight, imaginary lines that generally have good reasons behind their creation.
Gerrymandering
The redrawing of boundaries to improve the chances of its supporters to win seats.
Geopolitics
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Globalozation
Growing commonalities among nations
Government
A reference to the leadership and institutions that make policy decisions for a country.
Heartland Theory
Stated that the "pivot area" of the earth power, would ultimately rule the world.
Imperialism
The European colonization of Africa and Asia is often called this or empire building.
Institutions
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Integration
A process that encourages states to pool their sovereignty in order to gain political, economic, and social clout.
Internal Boundaries
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Irredentism
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Landlocked States
States lacking ocean frontage and surrounded by other states.
Market Economy
Does not allow for significant control from the central government.
Marketization
Describes the stat`s re-creation of a market in which property, labor, goods, and services can all function in a competitive environment to determine their value.
Median-Line Principle
When water boundaries are set in the middle of the body of water.
Microstates
Countries with not a lot of land space.
Minority/Majority Districting
Rearranging districts to allow a minority representative to be elected, and it is just as controversial as the old-style party gerrymandering.
Mixed Economy
Allows for significant control from the central government.
Monetary Policy
The control of the money supply.
Multicore State
States with more than one core; May be problematic.
Nation
A group of people that is bound together by a common political identity.
Nation-State
Refers to a state whose territorial extent coincides with that occupied by a distinct nation or people, or at least , whose population shares a general sense of unity and allegiance to a set of common values.
Nationalism
A national consciousness; identities based on nationhood.
Perforated States
A state that completely surrounds another state. Like South Africa.
Physical Boundaries
Physical features are easy to see on a map and in reality so they make good boundaries. They can include water, mountains, and deserts.
Political Geogrpahy
The study of the political organization of the planet.
Political Culture
The collection of political beliefs, values, practices, and institutions that the government is based on.
Politicization of Religion
The use of religious principles to promote political ends and vice versa.
Politics
All about power.
Primate City
If no other city comes even close to rivaling the capital city in terms of size or influence, it is called this.
Privization
The transfer of state-owned property to private ownership.
Ratzel, Friedrich
Theorized that a state compares to a biological organism with a life cycle from birth to death, with a predictable rise and fall of power.
Relative Location
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Rimland Theory
Challenged the heartland theory. Argued that the power lied in the rim, not its heart. A rimland is a large swath of land that encircles the heartland, roughly touching oceans and seas.
Security Council
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Separatist Movement
Nationalities within a country demands independence.
Shatter Belts
Zones of great cultural complexity containing many small cultural groups who fond refuge in the isolation created by rough terrain.
Sovereignty
The ability of the state to carry out actions or policies within its borders independently from interference from either inside or outside.
Spatial Force
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Stateless Nation
A people without a state.
States
Country; Defines who can and cannot use weapons and force, and it sets the rules as to how violence is used.
Supranational Organization
Cooperating groups of nations that operate on either a regional or international level.
Territorial Morphology
A term that describes the shapes, sizes, and relative location of states.
Territoriality
Efforts to control pieces of the earth`s surface for political and social ends.
"Third Wave" of Democratization
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Three Pillars
1.Trade and other economic matters,including economic and monetary union into a single currency, and the creation of the European Central Bank.
2.Justice and home affairs, including policy governing asylum, border crossing, immigration, and judicial cooperation on crime and terrorism.
3.Common foreign and security policy, including joint positions and actions, and common defense policy.
Unitary States
State that concentrates all policy-making powers in one central geographic place.