32 terms

Chapter 10- Personality

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Terms in this set (...)

Personality (def)
One's distinctive and relatively consistent
patterns of thought, feeling, and behavior.
Psychoanalytic approach
Explains personality, motivation, and
psychological disorders by focusing on.....
early childhood experiences
developmental stages
unconscious motives and conflicts between inner
and outer world
the anxiety created by those conflicts
methods people use to cope with their sexual
and aggressive urges
Id
completely unconscious
primitive, instinctive component of personality
Libido (sexual drives)
Thanatos (death instinct, aggressive drives)
operates according to the Pleasure Principle
Ego
decision-making component of personality
operates according to the Reality Principle
serves 3 harsh masters:
pleasure seeking id
moralistic superego
realistic aspects of the environment
strong ego is essential ingredient of a
healthy adult personality
Superego
moral component of personality that
incorporates learned societal standards about right and wrong
meeting standards leads to pride
failing standards leads to guilt
conscience
Stages of psycho-sexual development
Oral 0-1 Mouth Weaning (from breast or bottle)
Anal 1-3 Anus Toilet Training
Phallic 3-6 Genitals Identification with role models
Latency 6-12 None Expanding social contacts
Genital Puberty Genitals Establishing intimate relations outside the family
Fixation
failure to move from one stage to
another
over-gratification
under-gratification (frustration)
Denial
refusing to recognize anxiety-provoking
events or information
Displacement
diverting unacceptable emotions
from the original target to a more acceptable substitute
Projection
transferring your own unacceptable
thoughts, feelings, or motives onto another person
Represssion
pushing anxiety into the unconscious
Reaction formation
behaving in a way that's opposite
your true feelings
Jung
Analytic Psychology
collective unconscious
archetypes
introverts vs. extraverts
Adler
Individual Psychology
striving for superiority (perfection and purpose as
motivators)
inferiority complex and compensation
sibling rivalry
Maslow- Self- actualization
Believed we can learn most about human
personality by focusing on the very best examples of human beings: self-actualizers
Described self-actualizers as spontaneous,
creative, and possessing a childlike capacity for awe
His list is biased (men, Westerners)
Rogers- condition of worth
Developed his theory of personality based on
observations made during psychotherapy
Led to conclusions that sense of "self" is crucial in
human experience. Most people are struggling to become their "real selves"
Conditions of worth—standards that must be met to
receive positive regard from others
Self-actualization requires self-acceptance
congruence between actual self and ideal self
requires unconditional love, acceptance
Traits approach
Trait theories—stress that personality consists
of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristic responses
Lexical Approach
If a trait is important to people in real life, it
ought to be represented in the natural language
people use to talk about one another
• Odbert counted....18,000 trait terms in the
dictionary
• Factor analysis—a statistical tool that helps us
narrow the list from 18,000 traits to 5.
Th Big five (Ocean)
Neurotocism (e.g,. calm - worrying)
Extraversion (e.g., quiet - talkative)
Openness to experience (e.g., conservative-
liberal)
Agreeableness (e.g., suspicious - trusting) Conscientiousness (e.g., lazy- hard working)
Social-cognitive perspective
Focuses on interactions of person with
environment
Highlights observation of behavior
Emphasizes influence of cognitive processes
Reciprocal determinism
Person (traits/cognition), behavior and environment all effect each other
Self-efficacy
belief that one can accomplish a
given goal and produce positive change
Biological Perspective
Emphasizes that biological processes
influence personality
Physiological processes
Genetics
Evolution
Emphasis on consistency and stability of
personality
Esenck
Reticular activating system (RAS)
• Located in the brain stem
• Plays role in wakefulness or arousal
• Theorized that RAS of extraverts and introverts
differed in baseline levels of arousal
• They don't...but they do differ in terms of their
sensitivity to arousal
Gray
Argued that two neurological systems
underlie personality differences:
• Behavior approach system (BAS)
• Sensitive to rewards
• Predisposition to positive emotion
• Underlies extraversion
• Behavioral inhibition system (BIS)
• Sensitive to punishers
• Predisposition to fear
• Underlies neuroticism
Neurotransmitters
Dopamine
• Function in experience of reward
• Factor in BAS or extraversion
Serotonin
• Related to neuroticism
• Less serotonin
More negative mood
• Inhibition of serotonin reuptake
• Decreases negative mood
• Enhances feelings of sociability
• Does not tell us about potential causal
pathways
Self-report
Directly ask people whether different items
describe their personality traits
• Social desirability
• Motivates individuals to respond in ways that
make them look better
projective test
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
• Designed to elicit stories that reveal personality
• Greater reliability and validity
Self-report
MMPI
• Most widely used and researched empirically-
keyed self-report personality test
• Used to assess personality and predict outcomes
Self-Report
NEO-PI-R • Geared toward assessing the five-factor model • Includes items with face validity
Projective test
Present individuals with ambiguous stimulus
• Ask them to describe it, or tell a story about
it
• Especially designed to elicit unconscious
feelings and conflicts
Projective test
Rorschach inkblot test
• Responses are scored based on indications of
various underlying psychological characteristics
• Reliability and validity criticized