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46 terms

Nutrition Exam 2

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The main function of carbohydrates in the body is to:
Provide Energy
The main component of starch and glycogen, called blood sugar, the most important carbohydrate fuel for the human body
Glucose
Have inadequate production of the enzyme lactase
Lactose Intolerant
____cannot be digested by human digestive enzymes
Fiber
Carbohydrate digestions begins in the:
Mouth
Fiber and other indigestible carbohydrates are partially broken down by the bacteria in the:
Large Intestine
The rise in blood glucose levels after eating stimulates the pancreas to secret the hormone_____, causing blood glucose levels to____
Insulin, drop
Hormone, stimulates the synthesis of protein, fat, and glycogen, and secreted by the pancreas
Insulin
Where there is not sufficient carbohydrate to completely metabolize fatty acids, these molecules form:
Ketones
___is caused by an autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas
Type 1 diabetes
The lipid that makes up most of the lipids in our body is:
Triglyceride
____is an important component of cell membrane, forming a lipid bilayer by orientating the water-soluble portion towards the water environment
Phospholipid
____is needed in the body to make Vitamin D, bile acids, and cortisol
Cholesterol
Which of the following choices represents monosaccharide:disaccharide:complex with regard to classification of carbohydrates?
glucose:sucrose:insoluble fiber
The best known phospholipid used by the food industry to prevent oil from separating from other ingredient is____
Lecithin
Since chylomicrons are too large to enter the capillaries in the small intestine, they pass into the:
Lymph
Return cholesterol from other lipoproteins and body cells to the liver
HDLS
Protein molecules consumed in the diet and form the breakdown of body proteins
Amino Acid pool
If the diet is deficient in one or more of the___amino acids, the body must break down existing proteins to provide the amino acids
Essential
Lipoprotein lipase breaks down the triglycerides in chylomicrons into:
Fatty acids and glycerol
To maintain a healthy body weight, Shaundra needs to eat 1850 calories per day. To be within the DRIs recommendations for total fat intake, which of the following amounts of total fat should be her upper limit
72
Which two lipoproteins deliver triglycerides to body cells?
Chylomicrons and VLDL
Which of the following represents the correct sequence of steps that occur in protein synthesis?
Transcription-->mRNA takes genetic code to ribosomes-->translation
Which lipoprotein has the highest proportion of triglyceride?
Chylomicron
The___amino acid is the essential amino acid that is available in the lowest concentration relative to the body's needs
Limiting
Protein___is a measure of how good the protein in food is at providing the essential amino acids the body needs
Quality
Swollen belly
Kwashiokor
Someone whose nitrogen output is greater than their nitrogen intake is said to be in
Negative nitrogen balance
These are certain conditions under which some of the nonessential amino acids cannot be synthesized to meet the body's needs. When this occurs these amino acids are referred to as___amino acids.
Conditionally essential
Protein requirements per unit of body weight are____for infants and children than for adults
Greater
Rapid initial weight loss achieved on a low-carbohydrate diet is primarily due to____loss.
Water
Which of the following types of vegetarians consume no form of animal product?
Vegan
Tissue repair, enzyme production, hormone regulation
Protein
A___bond joins amino acids together
Peptide
Matt weights 185 pounds and he wants to make sure that he is getting the RDA requirement for protein. How many grams of proteins should he be getting to meet the RDA? (1kg=2.2 pounds)
67 grams
Lipids that are consumed in the diet are absorbed into the intestinal mucosal cells. From here, all of the following molecules, with the exception of____, are not soluble in water, and are thus packaged for transport.
short-chain fatty acids
Women who have gestational diabetes are at risk for developing type 2 diabetes late in life
True
The terms stone ground and cracked wheat indicate that the product is a whole grain product
False
Body proteins that are broken down to make glucose are no longer available to do their jobs like to speed up a chemical reaction or to contract a muscle
True
All omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are unsaturated
True
The glycemic index is a measure of how quickly and how high blood glucose levels rise after carbohydrates are consumed
True
All cis and trans fatty acids are saturated
False
The ability of the body to store excess triglycerides is theoretically limitless
True
The DRI for protein is 1.8 grams per kilogram of body weight
False
The process by which amino acids enter the body involves as energy-requiring amino acids transport system
True
Hydrogeneration makes a saturated fatty acid more unsaturated
False