INFO 210 Chapter 9

systems development life cycle (SDLC)
overall process for developing information systems, from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance

foundation for all systems development methods and lots of different activities (determining budgets, gathering system requirements, writing detailed user documentation) are associated with each phase
planning phase (SDLC)
establishes a high-level plan of the intended project and determines project goals

most critical
analysis phase (SDLC)
when a firm analyzes end-user business requirements and refines project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system
business requirements
specific business requests the system must meet to be successful
design phase (SDLC)
establishes the descriptions of the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation
development phase (SDLC)
takes all the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforms them into the actual system

project goes from preliminary designs to actual physical implementation
testing phase (SDLC)
brings all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to eliminate errors and bugs, and verify that the system meets all the business requirements defined in the analysis phase
implementation phase (SDLC)
placement by the organization of the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with it
maintenance phase (SDLC)
when the organization performs changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet its business goals

continues for the life of the system
set of policies, procedures, standards, processes, practices, tools, techniques, and tasks that people apply to technical and management challenges

a formal THIS can include coding standards, code libraries, development practices, and much more
waterfall methodology
sequence of phases in which the output of each phase becomes the input for the next
iterative development
consists of a series of tiny projects

foundation of multiple agile methodologies
agile methodology
aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process using the bare minimum requirements

fast and efficient, with lower costs and fewer features

helps refine feasibility and supports the process for getting rapid feedback as functionality is introduced

helps maintain accountability
rapid application development (RAD) methodology
also called rapid prototyping; emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system, to accelerate the systems development process
smaller-scale representation or working model of the users' requirements or the proposed design for an information system

essential in the analysis phase when using RAD methodology
extreme programming (EP) methodology
breaks a project into four phases, and developers cannot continue to the next phase until the previous phase is complete

the quicker the feedback the more improved the results

continuously reviewing and revamping needed and unneeded requirements

encourages managers, customers, and developers to work together
rational unified process (RUP) methodology
owned by IBM, provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into four "gates"

each gate consists of executable iterations of the software in developments.

A project stays in the gate waiting, either moves or is cancelled

avoids reinventing the wheel and focuses on rapidly adding or removing reusable chunks of processes addressing common problems
gate one; inception
ensures all stakeholders have a shared understanding of the proposed system and what it will do
gate two; elaboration
expands on the agreed-upon details of the system, including the ability to provide an architecture to support and build it
gate three; construction
includes building and developing the product
gate four; transition
primary questions answered in this phase address ownership of the system and training of key personnel
scrum methodology
uses small teams to produce small pieces of software using a series of "sprints", or 30-day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal
Project Management Institute (PMI)
develops procedures and concepts necessary to support the profession of project management
temporary activity a company undertakes to create a unique product, service, or result
project management
application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements

the science of making intelligent trade-offs between time, cost, and scope
project manager
an individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan, and tracks the plan to ensure the project is completed on time and on budget

responsible for executing the entire project
project deliverables
any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that is produced to complete a project or part of a project
project milestones
represent key dates when a certain group of activities must be performed
project management office (PMO)
an internal department that oversees all organizational projects

one of the primary initiatives of THIS is to educate the organization on techniques and procedures necessary to run successful projects
triple constraint
PMI's portrayal of the relationships between time, cost, and scope
project stakeholders
individuals and organizations actively involved in the project or whose interests might be affected as a result of project execution or project completion

can exert influence over the project's objectives and outcomes

measure projects based on such factors as customer satisfaction, increased revenue, or decreased cost
executive sponsor
the person or group who provides the financial resources for the project

has the most impact on the success or failure of a project

leadership strength directly correlates to success of project

INFLUENCE- can gain direct essential resources to accomplish project. good if they are connected
some activities project managers perform
choosing strategic projects,
understanding project planning,
managing projects,
outsourcing projects
project charter
document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the start of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities

someone has stepped up to pay for and support project
project scope statement
links the project to the organization's overall business goals; describes the business need and the justification, requirements, and current boundaries for the project

defines the work that must be completed to deliver the product with the specified features and functions, and includes constraints, assumptions, and requirements
project objectives
quantifiable criteria that must be met for the project to be considered a success

essentially the major elements of the projects

must include metrics so that the project's success can be measured (SMART)
project constraints
specific factors that can limit options (budget, due dates, etc)
project assumptions
factors considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration (hours in a workweek, time of year work is performed)
project plan
formal, approved document that manages and controls project execution; includes description of project scope, list of activities, schedule, time and cost estimates, risk factors, resources, assignments, and responsibilities

most project professionals also include contingency, review and communication strategies, and a kill switch.

also include estimates for revenue and strategic necessities, measurement and reporting methods and details as to how top leadership will engage in the project
kill switch
trigger that enables a project manager to close the project before completion
PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) chart
graphical network model that depicts a project's tasks and the relationships between them
logical relationship that exists between the project tasks, or between a project task and a milestone
critical path
estimates the shortest path through the project ensuring all critical tasks are completed from start to finish (PERT)
Gantt chart
simple bar chart that lists project tasks vertically against the project's time frame, listed horizontally

works well for representing the project schedule/ shows actual progress of tasks against the planned duration
people, communications, change
What 3 areas must the project manager focus on to ensure success?
change management
offers procedures and policies managers can use to help manage change during system development
change management system
includes a collection of procedures to document a change request and identifies the expected impact associated with the change
change control board (CCB)
responsible for approving or rejecting all change requests, based on the impact analysis of the change

____ considers all change requests from stakeholders (system owners, users, customers, etc)

has a rep from each major business area
in-sourcing (in-house development)
uses the professional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain its information technology systems

has been instrumental in creating a viable supply of IT professionals and in creating a better quality workforce, combining both technical and business skillzz
an arrangement by which one organization provides a service or services for another organization that chooses not to perform them in-house
What are some reasons that companies choose to use outsourcing?
core competencies
financial savings
rapid growth
Internet and globalization

inexpensive but good work
onshore outsourcing
engaging another company within the same country for services
nearshore outsourcing
contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country, often a neighbor by border
offshore outsourcing
using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems
Which departments are commonly outsourced?
MIS, HR, finance, accounting, marketing, sales
What are some challenges of outsourcing?
length of contracts, threat to competitive advantage, loss of confidentiality
Mission Impossible Project
project with a great chance of success; hard work will pay off as happiness and joy are found from putting in more and more work
Ugly Project
high chance of success but is very painful and offers very little happiness
Suicide Project
project with no chance of success and offers nothing but pain
a business need, proceeds to an assessment of the functions a system must have to satisfy thatneed, and ends when the benefits of the system no longer outweigh its maintenance costs
SDLC begins with...
problems with Waterfall Methodology
inflexible and expensive and rigid adherence to the sequence of steps

errors flow from one stage to the next/what if someone quits? or what if there is a delay?/does not meet future needs
smaller, greater
The ____ the project, the _____ the success rate
1. Rapid Prototyping or rapid application development methodology (RAD)
2. Extreme Programming Methodology (XP)
3. Rational Unified Process (RUP) Methodology
4. Scrum Methodology
primary forms of agile methodologies include:
XP Methodology: Planning
can include user interviews, meetings, and small releases
XP Methodology: Design
functionality is not added until it is required or needed
XP Methodology: Coding
the developers work together soliciting continuous feedback from users, eliminating the communication gap that generally exists between developers and customers
XP Methodology: Testing
the test requirements are generated before any code is developed
4 basic phases of XP Methodology
planning, designing, coding, and testing
customer sastifaction
_______ the primary reason XP finds success as developers quickly respond to changing business requirements, even late in the life cycle
fundamentals of RAD
focuses initially on creating a prototype that looks and acts like the desired system

actively involve system users in the analysis, design, and development phases

accelerate collecting the business requirements through an interactive and iterative construction approach
primary reasons for project failure include
-unclear or missing business requirements (most common)

-skipping sdlc phases (when a project falls behind, skip testing)

-changing technologies (technology changes at really faced pace, hard to predict)

-cost of finding errors (inexpensive at analysis and design phase. expensive at testing or implementation phase)
triple constraint-- time, cost, and scope
3 primary and interdependent variables in any project
choosing strategic projects
an organization must choose what it wants to do- justifying it, defining it, and listing expected results- and how to do it, including project approach, project schedule, and analysis of project risks
techniques managers use to determine which projects to work on that best fit the goals of the business:
focus on organizational goals

categorize business priorities (as challenges or opportunities)

perform financial analysis (help determine financial expectations for a project)
project charter, scope statement, and the project management plan
solid project begins with documentation that includes:
Agreed Upon
Time Frame
SMART criteria
most important part of the project plan
2 primary diagrams used in project planning
Gantt charts
PERT chart
defines dependency between project tasks before those tasks are scheduled
Managing a project includes
Identifying requirements

Establishing clear and achievable objectives

Balancing the competing demands of quality, scope, time, and cost

Adapting the specifications, plans, and approach to the different concerns and expectations of the various stakeholders
minimize scope and create a better estimate.

knows that a happy stakeholder is one who is underpromised and overdelivered
An experienced project manager should be able to...?
2 of the project manager's critical goals when managing people
resolving conflicts within the team

balancing the needs of the project with the personal and professional needs of the team
communications plan
a project manager plans what and how he or she will communicate as a formal part of the project management plan called......
managing communications
project manager distributes info on schedule, cost, scope, quality, and status

provides a method for continually obtaining and monitoring feedback from and for all stakeholders

foster an environment of trust
in sourcing
out sourcing
two basic options are available to organizations wishing to develop and maintain their information systems...........
onshore, nearshore, offshore
3 forms of outsourcing
India b/c it promotes English along with a technologically advanced population
largest offshore marketplace?