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systems development life cycle (SDLC)

overall process for developing information systems, from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance

foundation for all systems development methods and lots of different activities (determining budgets, gathering system requirements, writing detailed user documentation) are associated with each phase

planning phase (SDLC)

establishes a high-level plan of the intended project and determines project goals

most critical

analysis phase (SDLC)

when a firm analyzes end-user business requirements and refines project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system

business requirements

specific business requests the system must meet to be successful

design phase (SDLC)

establishes the descriptions of the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation

development phase (SDLC)

takes all the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforms them into the actual system

project goes from preliminary designs to actual physical implementation

testing phase (SDLC)

brings all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to eliminate errors and bugs, and verify that the system meets all the business requirements defined in the analysis phase

implementation phase (SDLC)

placement by the organization of the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with it

maintenance phase (SDLC)

when the organization performs changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet its business goals

continues for the life of the system


set of policies, procedures, standards, processes, practices, tools, techniques, and tasks that people apply to technical and management challenges

a formal THIS can include coding standards, code libraries, development practices, and much more

waterfall methodology

sequence of phases in which the output of each phase becomes the input for the next

iterative development

consists of a series of tiny projects

foundation of multiple agile methodologies

agile methodology

aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process using the bare minimum requirements

fast and efficient, with lower costs and fewer features

helps refine feasibility and supports the process for getting rapid feedback as functionality is introduced

helps maintain accountability

rapid application development (RAD) methodology

also called rapid prototyping; emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system, to accelerate the systems development process


smaller-scale representation or working model of the users' requirements or the proposed design for an information system

essential in the analysis phase when using RAD methodology

extreme programming (EP) methodology

breaks a project into four phases, and developers cannot continue to the next phase until the previous phase is complete

the quicker the feedback the more improved the results

continuously reviewing and revamping needed and unneeded requirements

encourages managers, customers, and developers to work together

rational unified process (RUP) methodology

owned by IBM, provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into four "gates"

each gate consists of executable iterations of the software in developments.

A project stays in the gate waiting, either moves or is cancelled

avoids reinventing the wheel and focuses on rapidly adding or removing reusable chunks of processes addressing common problems

gate one; inception

ensures all stakeholders have a shared understanding of the proposed system and what it will do

gate two; elaboration

expands on the agreed-upon details of the system, including the ability to provide an architecture to support and build it

gate three; construction

includes building and developing the product

gate four; transition

primary questions answered in this phase address ownership of the system and training of key personnel

scrum methodology

uses small teams to produce small pieces of software using a series of "sprints", or 30-day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal

Project Management Institute (PMI)

develops procedures and concepts necessary to support the profession of project management


temporary activity a company undertakes to create a unique product, service, or result

project management

application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements

the science of making intelligent trade-offs between time, cost, and scope

project manager

an individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan, and tracks the plan to ensure the project is completed on time and on budget

responsible for executing the entire project

project deliverables

any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that is produced to complete a project or part of a project

project milestones

represent key dates when a certain group of activities must be performed

project management office (PMO)

an internal department that oversees all organizational projects

one of the primary initiatives of THIS is to educate the organization on techniques and procedures necessary to run successful projects

triple constraint

PMI's portrayal of the relationships between time, cost, and scope

project stakeholders

individuals and organizations actively involved in the project or whose interests might be affected as a result of project execution or project completion

can exert influence over the project's objectives and outcomes

measure projects based on such factors as customer satisfaction, increased revenue, or decreased cost

executive sponsor

the person or group who provides the financial resources for the project

has the most impact on the success or failure of a project

leadership strength directly correlates to success of project

INFLUENCE- can gain direct essential resources to accomplish project. good if they are connected

some activities project managers perform

choosing strategic projects,
understanding project planning,
managing projects,
outsourcing projects

project charter

document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the start of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities

someone has stepped up to pay for and support project

project scope statement

links the project to the organization's overall business goals; describes the business need and the justification, requirements, and current boundaries for the project

defines the work that must be completed to deliver the product with the specified features and functions, and includes constraints, assumptions, and requirements

project objectives

quantifiable criteria that must be met for the project to be considered a success

essentially the major elements of the projects

must include metrics so that the project's success can be measured (SMART)

project constraints

specific factors that can limit options (budget, due dates, etc)

project assumptions

factors considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration (hours in a workweek, time of year work is performed)

project plan

formal, approved document that manages and controls project execution; includes description of project scope, list of activities, schedule, time and cost estimates, risk factors, resources, assignments, and responsibilities

most project professionals also include contingency, review and communication strategies, and a kill switch.

also include estimates for revenue and strategic necessities, measurement and reporting methods and details as to how top leadership will engage in the project

kill switch

trigger that enables a project manager to close the project before completion

PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) chart

graphical network model that depicts a project's tasks and the relationships between them


logical relationship that exists between the project tasks, or between a project task and a milestone

critical path

estimates the shortest path through the project ensuring all critical tasks are completed from start to finish (PERT)

Gantt chart

simple bar chart that lists project tasks vertically against the project's time frame, listed horizontally

works well for representing the project schedule/ shows actual progress of tasks against the planned duration

people, communications, change

What 3 areas must the project manager focus on to ensure success?

change management

offers procedures and policies managers can use to help manage change during system development

change management system

includes a collection of procedures to document a change request and identifies the expected impact associated with the change

change control board (CCB)

responsible for approving or rejecting all change requests, based on the impact analysis of the change

____ considers all change requests from stakeholders (system owners, users, customers, etc)

has a rep from each major business area

in-sourcing (in-house development)

uses the professional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain its information technology systems

has been instrumental in creating a viable supply of IT professionals and in creating a better quality workforce, combining both technical and business skillzz


an arrangement by which one organization provides a service or services for another organization that chooses not to perform them in-house

What are some reasons that companies choose to use outsourcing?

core competencies
financial savings
rapid growth
Internet and globalization

inexpensive but good work

onshore outsourcing

engaging another company within the same country for services

nearshore outsourcing

contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country, often a neighbor by border

offshore outsourcing

using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems

Which departments are commonly outsourced?

MIS, HR, finance, accounting, marketing, sales

What are some challenges of outsourcing?

length of contracts, threat to competitive advantage, loss of confidentiality

Mission Impossible Project

project with a great chance of success; hard work will pay off as happiness and joy are found from putting in more and more work

Ugly Project

high chance of success but is very painful and offers very little happiness

Suicide Project

project with no chance of success and offers nothing but pain

a business need, proceeds to an assessment of the functions a system must have to satisfy thatneed, and ends when the benefits of the system no longer outweigh its maintenance costs

SDLC begins with...

problems with Waterfall Methodology

inflexible and expensive and rigid adherence to the sequence of steps

errors flow from one stage to the next/what if someone quits? or what if there is a delay?/does not meet future needs

smaller, greater

The ____ the project, the _____ the success rate

1. Rapid Prototyping or rapid application development methodology (RAD)
2. Extreme Programming Methodology (XP)
3. Rational Unified Process (RUP) Methodology
4. Scrum Methodology

primary forms of agile methodologies include:

XP Methodology: Planning

can include user interviews, meetings, and small releases

XP Methodology: Design

functionality is not added until it is required or needed

XP Methodology: Coding

the developers work together soliciting continuous feedback from users, eliminating the communication gap that generally exists between developers and customers

XP Methodology: Testing

the test requirements are generated before any code is developed

4 basic phases of XP Methodology

planning, designing, coding, and testing

customer sastifaction

_______ the primary reason XP finds success as developers quickly respond to changing business requirements, even late in the life cycle

fundamentals of RAD

focuses initially on creating a prototype that looks and acts like the desired system

actively involve system users in the analysis, design, and development phases

accelerate collecting the business requirements through an interactive and iterative construction approach

primary reasons for project failure include

-unclear or missing business requirements (most common)

-skipping sdlc phases (when a project falls behind, skip testing)

-changing technologies (technology changes at really faced pace, hard to predict)

-cost of finding errors (inexpensive at analysis and design phase. expensive at testing or implementation phase)

triple constraint-- time, cost, and scope

3 primary and interdependent variables in any project

choosing strategic projects

an organization must choose what it wants to do- justifying it, defining it, and listing expected results- and how to do it, including project approach, project schedule, and analysis of project risks

techniques managers use to determine which projects to work on that best fit the goals of the business:

focus on organizational goals

categorize business priorities (as challenges or opportunities)

perform financial analysis (help determine financial expectations for a project)

project charter, scope statement, and the project management plan

solid project begins with documentation that includes:

Agreed Upon
Time Frame

SMART criteria

most important part of the project plan


2 primary diagrams used in project planning

Gantt charts

PERT chart

defines dependency between project tasks before those tasks are scheduled

Managing a project includes

Identifying requirements

Establishing clear and achievable objectives

Balancing the competing demands of quality, scope, time, and cost

Adapting the specifications, plans, and approach to the different concerns and expectations of the various stakeholders

minimize scope and create a better estimate.

knows that a happy stakeholder is one who is underpromised and overdelivered

An experienced project manager should be able to...?

2 of the project manager's critical goals when managing people

resolving conflicts within the team

balancing the needs of the project with the personal and professional needs of the team

communications plan

a project manager plans what and how he or she will communicate as a formal part of the project management plan called......

managing communications

project manager distributes info on schedule, cost, scope, quality, and status

provides a method for continually obtaining and monitoring feedback from and for all stakeholders

foster an environment of trust

in sourcing
out sourcing

two basic options are available to organizations wishing to develop and maintain their information systems...........

onshore, nearshore, offshore

3 forms of outsourcing

India b/c it promotes English along with a technologically advanced population

largest offshore marketplace?

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