Terms in this set (57)
What is Community?
"a group of people who have common characteristics"
- Can be defined by location, race, ethnicity, age, occupation, problems, outcomes, or other bonds.
How is a community characterized?
1. Membership, sense of belonging
2. common symbol systems, languages, rituals
3. Shared values and norms
4. Mutual influence
5. Shared needs and commitment to meeting them
6. Shared emotional connection
What terms used in community organizing, health agencies, outside funders, and policy makers?
What is Community Organization?
What is Citizen Participation?
- The bottom-up, grassroots mobilization of citizens for the purpose of undertaking activities to improve the condition of something in the community
What is Community Capacity?
- Community characteristics affecting its ability to identify, mobilize, and address problems
What is Community Development?
- A process designed to create conditions of economic and social progress for the whole community with its active participation and the fullest possible reliance on the community's initiative
What is Empowerment?
Social action process for people to gain mastery over their lives and the lives of their communities
What is Grassroots Participation?
Botton-up Efforts of people taking collective actions on their own behalf, and they involve the use of sophisticated blend of confrontation and cooperation in order to achieve their ends
What is Macro Practice?
The methods of professional change that deal with issues beyond the individual, family, and small group level
What is Participation and Relevance?
Community organizing that 'starts where the people are' and engages community members as equals
What is Social Capital?
The processes and conditions among people and organizations that lead their accomplishing a goal of mutual social benefit, usually characterized by interrelated constructs of trust, cooperation, civic engagement, and reciprocity, reinforced by networking.
What is Community Organizing?
Community organizing interventions are aimed at the community level
-They involve pooling resources to deal with shared problems
-" A process through which communities are helped to identify common problems or goals, mobilize resources, and in other ways develop and implement strategies for reaching their goals they have collectively set."
"Community Organizing" originated out of what discipline?
What components make up community organizing?
What are assumptions of community organizing?
1. communities can develop the capacity to deal with their problems
2. people want to change and can change
3. People should participate in making changes
4. Self-imposed and self developed change are more lasting
5. "Holistic" as "Fragmented" approach
6. Democracy requires cooperative participation
7. Communities need help with problems just like individuals do
Is there a specific way for community organizing and community building to be approached?
There is no single, unified approach
The three best categories of community organization?
Locality development (AKA planning & policy practice)
Social Planning (AKA Community capacity development)
Social Action (AKA Social advocacy)
What is Locality Development?
Seeks community change through broad self-help participation from the local community; builds a sense of community
-The heart of this is data. It is used to generate persuasive rationales that lead toward proposing and enacting particular solutions
What is Social Planning?
Task oriented, focused on problem solving usually by outside expert.
What is Social Action?
Both task & process oriented; achieving change to redness imbalance in power (e.g. civil rights, & gay rights movement)
What are the steps in Community Organizing and Building?
1. Recognizing the issue
2. Gaining entry into the community
3. Organizing the people
4. Assessing the community
5. Determining the priorities and setting goals
6. Arriving at a solution and selecting intervention strategies
7. Implementing the plan
8. Evaluating the outcomes of the plan of action
9. Maintaining the outcomes in the community
10. Looping back
Who is the planner of the community organizing effort?
- someone who is an "outsider" with regard to the community being organized. Have trouble gaining the credibility to serve as a leader. (may work in the community) but often lives outside the community in which the organizing effort is needed.
-The role of the planner should take is the "Facilitator or Assistant"
( 1) Recognizing the Issue)
Community organizing efforts have been most successful when?
been recognized from inside the community
When is it called when there is internal recognition of the issue or concern?
Grassroots = citizen initiated = grassroots = bottom up organizing
( 2) Gaining Entry to the Community)
What are gatekeepers?
-individuals who control, both formally and informally, the "political climate" of the community
-Term infers that one must pass through the "gate" in order to get at the people in the community
-May include business leaders, education leaders, heads of law enforcement agencies, leaders of community activist groups, parent and teacher groups, clergy, politicians.
What is negotiating entrance with the gatekeepers?
Recognizing the issue
Gaining entry into the community
Organizing the people
( 3) Organizing the People)
Groups of participants to organize?
- Executive participants
- active participants
- occasional participants
- supporting participants
Who are executive participants?
Small, committed core group; leader or coordinator comes from this group
Who are active participants?
Those willing to work; may also include executive participants
- Not afraid to do the work that needs to be done
Who are occasional participants?
Involved on irregular basis, when decisions need to be made
Who are supporting participants?
Seldom involved but participant in other ways
-e.g. via financial or other resources
What is a coalition?
Formal, long-term alliance of organizations that come together to work for a common goal.
- Often to compensate for deficits in power, resources, and expertise.
What is a task force?
- "a self-contained group of 'doers' that is not ongoing. It is convened for a narrow purpose over a defined timeframe at the request of another body or committee"
What do volunteers work for?
-self-satisifaction, personal growth, fun, and other.
-Should be treated as a colleague and recognized as an official part of the team.
-Offer them more flexibility than employees.
-Get to know each volunteer personally so you can learn about special abilities and limitations and match responsibilities to skills.
-Assign specific and clearly defined tasks and to explain procedures and expectations.
Keep in mind when working the volunteers, they want to be:
- Appreciated for the work they do
- Busy with worthwhile and varied tasks
- Provided with clear communication and takes and expectations
- developed through training
( 4) Assessing the Community)
What is Community Building?
- "is an orientation to practice focused on community, rather than a strategic framework or approach, and on building capacities, not fixing problems."
-It is intended to affirm strong community-rooted traditions and to build on the good work already going on in communities.
-It is an orientation to the community that is strength based rather than need based & stresses the identification, nurturing, and celebration of community assets.
-What resources does the community have to solve the problem?
What is are the major differences between community organization and community building?
The type of assessment that is used to determine where to focus the community's efforts.
- For C.O. the assessment is focused on the needs of the community.
- For C.B. the assessment focuses on the assets and capabilities of the community.
What is Mapping Community Capacity?
-Assessing the community
-Determining the priorities and setting goals
-Arriving at a solution & selecting intervention strategies
- There are 3 categorized assets based their availability to the community and refer to them as BUILDING BLOCKS
What are Primary Blocks?
- assists and capacities in the neighborhoods, largely under neighborhood control (religious organizations and individual businesses)
- Most accessible
-Located in the neighborhood
- Largely under control of those living in neighborhood (e.g. skills & abilities of residents)
What are Secondary Building Blocks?
Assets in the community, largely controlled by outsiders (parks & libraries)
-Located in the neighborhood
-Largely under control of those living in neighborhood (e.g. skills & abilities of residents)
What are Potential Building Blocks?
-Resources outside the neighborhood, controlled by outsiders
- Resources originating outside the neighborhood
-Controlled by people outside the neighborhood (e.g. public information)
( 5) Determining Priorities and Setting Goals)
Goal-Setting Process includes how many phases?
1) Identifying the priorities of the group- what the group wants to accomplish
2) Using the priority list to write the goals.
Who establishes priorities and set goals?
What is a challenge that may surface when determining priorities and setting goals?
Turf Struggles (disagreements over the control of resources and responsibilities)
(final 4 steps)
What is looping back?
Implementing the plan
Evaluating the outcomes of the plan of action
Maintaining the outcomes in the community
What are the evaluation steps of the community organizing and building process?
Formative and Summative Evaluations
What is Process Evaluation?
the easier type of assessment to conduct.
What is advocacy?
People cannot speak for themselves (not always true
EX: children and old people
What is Macropractice?
the methods of professional change that deal with issues beyond the individual, family, and small group level
What is mobilizing?
If people show up, change occurs
- Is it realistic and effective? Not necessary
What is needs based?
Community development and social action (collaboration);
What is service?
Helps one person at a time?
Ex: some one needs food/it helps one person at a time
What is social capital?
The relationships and structures within a community, such as, civic participation networks, norms of reciprocity, and trust that promote cooperation, and mutual benefit.
What is strengths based?
Community and capacity building, empowerment oriented, social action
What's the difference between a "Needs Assessment" and an "Assets Assessment"?
Needs Assessments focuses on Needs and Problems
-Assets Assessment focuses on Capabilities/ Strengths and resources that exist within the community
What are the Three-Steps process of organizing and building a community?
1. Negotiating entrance with the gatekeepers
2. Mapping community capacity- Building blocks (Primary, Secondary, & Potential) assets.