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92 terms

Psych 4

STUDY
PLAY
Psychotherapy
techniques employed to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustment to life
Major Treatment Approaches
Insight, Behavior, Biomedical
Insight
psychoanalysis, psychodynamic; cognitive(rational-emotive therapy and cognitive behavior therapy); Huanistic (client- centered therapy); group, family, and marital
Behavior
classical conditioning (systematic desensitization, aversion therapy); operant conditioning (shaping, reinforcement, punishment, extinction); observational learning (modeling)
Biomedical
psychopharmacology; electroconvulsive therapy; psychosurgery
Psychoanalysis
Freudian therapy designed to bring unconscious conflicts, which usually date back to early childhood experiences, into consciousness; also Freud's theoretical school of thought emphasizing unconscious processes
Catharsis
in psychoanalytic theory, the release of tension and anxiety through the reliving of a traumatic incident
5 Methods of Psychoanalysis
Free Association, Dream Analysis, Resistance, Transference, Interpretation
Free Association
reporting whatever comes to mind without monitoring its contents
Dream Analysis
interpreting the underlying true meaning of dreams to reveal unconscious processes
Resistance
The person's inability or unwillingness to discuss or reveal certain memories, thoughts, motives, or experiences
Transference
the patient may displace (or transfer) unconscious feelings about a significant person in his or her life onto the therapist
Interpretation
explanation of a patient's free association, dreams, resistance, and transference; more generally, any statement by a therapist that presents a patient's problem in a new way
Cognitive Therapy
therapy that assumes the focuses on faulty thought processes and beliefs to treat problem behaviors
Self-Talk
internal dialogue; the things people say to themselves when they interrupt events
Cognitive Restructuring
process in cognitive therapy to change destructive thinking
Rational-Emotive Therapy
Ellis's cognitive therapy to eliminate self- defeating beliefs through rational examination
A-B-C-D Approach
four steps involved in creating and dealing with maladaptive thinking
"A"
Activating Event
"B"
Irrational Beliefs
"C"
Emotional Consequences
"D"
Disputing Irrational Beliefs
Steps to Overcoming Irrational Misconceptions
1. Evaluate Consequences
2. Identify Your Belief System
3. Dispute the Self-Defeating Beliefs
4. Practice Effective Ways of Thinking
Four Thinking Patterns associated with Depression
1. Selective Perception
2. Overgeneralization
3. Magnification
4. All-or-Nothing Thinking
Selective Perception
focus selectively on negative events while ignoring positive events
Overgeneralization
overgeneralize and draw negative conclusions about their self-worth
Magnification
exaggerate the importance of undesirable events or personal shortcomings and see them as catastrophic and unchangeable
All-or-Nothing Thinking
see things in black-or-white categories (good or bad, success or failure)
Humanistic Therapy
therapy to maximize personal growth through affective restructuring (emotional readjustment)
Client-Centered Therapy
Roger's therapy emphasizing the client's natural tendency to become healthy and productive; techniques include empathy unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and active listening
Empathy
Rogerain terms, an insightful awareness and ability to share another's inner experience
Unconditional Positive Regard
Roger's term for a nonjudgemental attitude and genuine caring for another
Genuineness
in Rogerian terms, authenticity or congruence; the awareness of one's true inner thoughts and feelings and being able to share them honestly with others
Active Listening
listening with total attention to what another is saying; it involves reflecting, paraphrasing, and clarifying what the person says and means
Behavior Therapy
group of techniques based on learning principles used to change maladaptive behaviors
Aversion Therapy
pairing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus with a maladaptive behavior
Systematic Desensitization
a gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear or phobia by working through a hierarchy of fear-evoking stimuli while staying deeply relaxed
Operant Condition Techniques
use shaping and reinforcement to increase adaptive behavior, and punishment and extinction to decrease maladaptive behaviors
Target Behavior
behavior to be acquired
Shaping
being rewarded for successive approximations of the target behavior
Token
secondary reinforcers like poker chips, credit cards, etc that can be exchanged for primary rewards such as food, treats, etc.
Modeling Therapy
watching and imitating models that demonstrate desirable behaviors
Biomedical Therapies
using physiological interventions (drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychosurgery) to reduce or alleviate symptoms of psychological disorders
Psychopharmacology
the study of drug effects on the mind and behavior
Anti-anxiety Drugs
Medications used to treat anxiety disorders
Anti-psychotic Drug
Chemicals administered to diminish or eliminate hallucinations, delusions, withdrawal, and other symptoms of psychosis; also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers
Anti-depressant Drug
chemicals prescribed to treat depression, prescribed to treat depression, some anxiety disorders, and vertain eating disorders (such as bulimia)
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Biomedical therapy based on passing electrical current through the brain; used almost exclusively to treat a serious depression when drug therapy does not work
Psychosurgery
Operative procedures on the brain designed to relieve severe mental symptoms that have not responded to other forms of treatment
Lobotomy
Outmoded medical procedure for mental disorders, which involved cutting nerve pathways between the frontal lobes and the thalamus and hypothalamus
Goal of Therapy: Disturbed Thoughts
troubled individuals typically suffer some degree of confusion, destructive thought patterns, or blocked understanding of their problems. Therapists work to change these thoughts, provide new ideas or information, and guide individuals toward finding solutions to problems
Goal of Therapy: Disturbed Emotions
People who seek therapy generally suffer from extreme emotional discomfort. Therapists help clients understand and control their emotions and relieve the discomfort
Goal of Therapy: Disturbed Behaviors
Therapists help clients eliminate troublesome behaviors and guide them toward more effective lives
Goal of Therapy: Interpersonal and Life Situations Difficulties
Therapists help clients improve their relationships with family, friends, and coworkers. They also help them avoid or minimize sources of stress in their lives, such as job demands or family conflicts
Goal of Therapy: Biomedical Disturbances
Troubled individuals sometimes suffer biological disruptions that directly cause or contribute to psychological difficulties (e.g., chemical imbalances that lead to depression). Therapists help relieve these problems, primarily with drugs
Eclectic Approach
Combining techniques from various theories to find the most appropriate treatment
Major Types of Mental Health Professionals
Clinical Psychologists, Counseling Psychologists, Psychiatrists, Psychiatric Social Worker, Psychiatric Nurse, School Psychologist
Clinical Psychologist
Work with patients suffering from mental disorders, but many also work in colleges and universities as teachers and researchers in addition to having their on private practice
Counseling Psychologist
They generally work in schools or other institutions and focus on problems in living rather than mental disorders
Psychiatrists
MDs are the only mental health specialists who can regularly prescribe drugs
Psychiatric Social Worker
Work in hospitals or outpatient settings working with people who have psychological problems
Psychiatric Nurse
take care of mental patients in hospital settings and mental health facilities
School Psychologist
psychological assessment and counseling involving school- related issues and problems
Attribution
an explanation for the cause of behaviors or events
Fundamental Attribution Error
Misjudging the cause of others' behavior as due to internal (dispositional) causes rather than external (situational) ones
Self-serving bias
Taking credit or our successes and externalizing our failures
Cognitive Dissonance
A feeling of discomfort caused by a discrepancy between an attitude and a behavior or between two attitudes
Prejudice
a learned, generally negative, attitude toward members of a group; it includes thoughts (stereotypes), feelings, and behavioral tendencies (possible discrimination)
Stereotype
a set of beliefs about the characteristics of people in a group that is generalized to all group members; also, the cognitive component of prejudice
Discrimination
Negative behaviors directed at members of a group
In-Group Favoritism
viewing members of the in-group more positively than members of an out-group
Out-Group Homogeneity Effect
Judging members of an out-group as more alike and less diverse than members of an in-group
Interpersonal Attraction
Positive feelings toward another
3 Factors in Attraction
Physical Attractiveness, Proximity, and Similarity
Physical Attractiveness
one of the most important factors in our initial liking or loving of others
Proximity
attraction based on geographic location
Similarity
we tend to prefer, and stay with, people who are most like us
Need Complementary
Attraction toward those with qualities we admire but personally lack
Need Compatibility
Attraction based on sharing similar needs
Romantic Love
Intense feelings of attraction to another within an erotic context and with future expectations
Companion Love
Strong and lasting attraction characterized by trust, caring, tolerance, and friendship
Conformity
Changing behavior as a result of real or imagined group pressure
Normative Social Influence
Conforming to group pressure out of a need for acceptance and approval
Norm
Cultural rule of behavior prescribing what is acceptable in a given situation
Milgram's Study
Research participants were told to give increasing levels of shocks to someone they had watched being strapped down and connected to this machine. The shock levels gradually increased to more severe shocks and they could here the patient suffering but couldn't see them
De-individualization
Increased arousal and reduced self-conciousness, inhibition, and personal responsibility that sometimes occurs in a group, particularly when the members feel anonymous
Group Polarization
Group's movement toward either riskier or more conservative behavior, depending on the member's initial dominant tendency
Groupthink
Faulty decision making that occurs when a highly cohesive group strives for agreement and avoids inconsistent information
Altruism
Actions designed to help others with no obvious benefit to the helper
Egoistic Model
Helping that's motivated by anticipated gain- later reciprocation, increased self-esteem, or avoidance of guilt and distress
Altruism Hypothesis
Helping because of empathy for someone in need
Diffusion of Responsibility
The dilution (or diffusion) of personal responsibility for acting by spreading it among all other group members