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20 terms

Chapter 4

STUDY
PLAY
Noam Chomsky has emphasized that the acquisition of language by children is facilitated by
an inborn readiness to learn grammatical rules
When people are asked to recall a list of words they had already earlier memorized, they often substitute synonyms for some words on the original list. This best illustrates the effects of
semantic encoding
n the words "helped" and "called," the "ed" ending is a(n)
morpheme.
A modern information-processing model that views memories as emerging from particular activation patterns within neural networks is known as
connectionism.
The process of encoding refers to
getting information into memory.
The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of____________ (also called short term memory sometimes)
working memory.
Chess Masters can recall the exact positions of most pieces after a brief galance at the game board. This ability is best explained in term of
chunking
"The Magical Number Seven, plus or minus two" refers to the storage capacity of _______ memory.
short-term.
When an eyewitness to an auto accident is asked to descrive what happened, which test of memory is being used?
recall
Ebbinghaus' use of nonsense syllables to study memory led to the discovery that
the amount remembered depends on the time spent learning.
B.F. Skinner emphasized the importance of ________ in language acquisition.
reinforcement
The address for obtaining tickets to a popular quiz show flashes on the TV screen, but the image disappears before Sergei has had a chance to write down the complete address. To his suprise, however, he has retained a momentary mental image of the five-digit zip code. His experience best illustrates ______ memory.
iconic
One day after Veronica hears her mother's list of 12 grocery items, Veronica is most likely to remember the items __________ of the list.
at the beginning
In an effort to remember how to spell "rhinoceros," Samantha spells the word aloud 30 times. She is using a technique known as
rehearsal
We are more likely to remember the words "typewriter, cigarette, and fire" than the words "void, process, and inherent." This best illustrates the value of
imagery
By shrinking the hippocampus, prolonged stress is most likely to inhibit the process of
long-term memory formation
After having a stroke, Aaron has great difficulty recalling any of his subsequent life experiences. He is most likely suffering from
amnesia.
Research on the language capabilities of apes clearly demonstrates that they
can communicate through the use of symbols.
The ability to learn something without any conscious memory of having learned it suggests the need to distinguish between
explicit memory and implicit memory
Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious recollection that you can do so best illustrates________memory
implicit.