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Russia enters the First World War.


Russia suffers 2 million casualties.


Progressive bloc calls for a new government responsible to the Duma rather than to the czar.


Czar Nicholas adjourns the Duma and departs for the front; Alexandra and Rasputin exert a strong influence on the government.

Dec. 1916

Rasputin is murdered.

March 8, 1917

Bread riots take place in Petrograd (St. Petersburg)

March 12, 1917

Duma declares a provisional government.

March 15, 1917

Czar Nicholas abdicates.

April 16, 1917

Lenin returns from exile and denounces the provisional government.

May 1917

Reorganized provisional government, including Kerensky, continues the war.

May 1917

Petrograd Soviet issues Army Order No. 1, granting military power to committees of common soldiers.

Summer 1917

Agrarian upheavals: peasants seize estates; peasant soldiers desert the army to participate.

October 1917

Bolsheviks gain a majority in the Petrograd Soviet.

Nov. 6, 1917

Bolsheviks seize power; Lenin heads the new "provisional workers' and peasants' government."

Nov. 1917

Lenin accepts peasant seizure of land and worker control of factories; all banks are nationalized.

January 1918

Lenin permanently disbands the Constituent Assembly.

February 1918

Lenin convinces the Bolshevik Central Committee to accept a humiliating peace with Germany in order to safeguard the revolution.

March 1918

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: Russia loses one-third of its population.

March 1918

Trotsky as war commissar begins to rebuild the Russian army.

March 1918

Government moves from Petrograd to Moscow.


Great civil war takes place.

Summer 1918

Eighteen regional governments compete for power.

Summer 1918

White armies oppose the Bolshevik Revolution.


White armies are on the offensive, but divided politically; they receive little benefit from Allied intervention.


Lenin and the Red Army are victorious, retaking Belorussia and Ukraine.

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