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study of the universe, origins, beginning


study of the nature of reality


study of the nature of God, relationship to man


the study of man's nature


the study of knowlwdge, truth, authority


the study of what is right


mind precedes mere matter


mind is mere matter

naturalism (or materialism)

belief that reality is composed soley of matter and that all phenomena can be explained in terms of natural causes.


everthing is part of God and in essence, spiritual.


belief that reality is more than nature, a transcendent God intervenes in natural law.


the study of ultimate reality


belief that what one encounters in the world exists independently of human thought.

mind/body issue

the study of the relationship of the mind to the physical body.

Christian theology?

Theism (Tritarian)

Islamic theology?

Theism (Unitarian)

Secular Humanist theology?


Marxist theology?


Cosmic humanist theology?


Postmodern theology?


How do some Christians use Col. 2:8 to support their belief that faith does not need to be defended on philosophical grounds? Whats wrong with it?

"See that no one takes you captive through hollow and deceptive philosophy"-They make it to mean that we are unable and should not try to defend our faith with the decietful discipline of philosophy.

What led former athiest C.E.M. Joadto embrace the Christian view of the universe?

reason, he saw the evidence and reasoned that there was in fact a God.

Whad does "faith precedes reason" mean?

All knowledge requires faith. Every worldview begins with basic assumptions about the nature of reality and can't be proven. It is the starting point before we reason.

What is the Christian view of the realtionship between the natural and supernatural? How is it different from naturalism?

Realism-what we encounter in the world exists independently of human thought, Supernaturalism-reality is more than nature, that a transcendent God intervenes in natural law. Naturalists believe only matter is real, what we see, hear, smell, taste, touch.

Which system of philosophy influenced Islamic philosophers? What kind of problem does this created for the Islamic view of God?

Greek philosophers, they sought to use it to understand, defend, and further their faith, but these philosophies often conflicted with orthodox Islamic teachings.

Which argument dis Muslims develop for the existance of God?

Kalam Cosmological Theory (rational reflection of three exclusive dilemas reguarding the origin of the cosmos: 1. Did the universe have a start? 2. Was the beginning caused? 3. Is the first caus personal?)

Are muslims naturalists or supernaturalists? Why? Do they believe in life or death?

Muslims are supernaturalists. They believe in God, angles, life after death.

Do muslims believe in miracles? Does the fact that Muhammad did not preform any miracles cause problems for Muslims?

Yes, the Qu'ran affrims numerous O.T. miracles as well as some miracles of Jesus. Muhammad was not the "greatest prophet" if he didn't preform the "greatest miracles"...he didn't even preform any.

How do muslims interpret Deut. 18:15-18 and John 14:16? How do Christians interpret these verses?

*(see book)

What is the essence of naturalism?

the denial of the supernatural

What is the cosmology of the Secular Humanist?

the same as naturalism, matter is all that exists and ever will be (and ever changing)

For a naturalist, what is the ultimate means of perception?

scientific study/observation

How does Lenin describe matter?

"all there is or ever will be"

What is the marxist view of truth and epistimology?

Science plays a crucial rolo, truth and knowledge is found through scientific study and observation.

What is the Marxist metaphysical belief?

they deny supernatural, the universe is all that does or ever will exist

What is the marxist view of philosophy?

dialectical materialism

What is the cosmic humantist view of philosophy?

Everything is spiritual.

Are cosmic humanists in agreement with naturalism?

No, they believe in non-naturalism (nothing natural, everything is spiritual)

What is the cosmic humanist view of truth? Where do they find it?

They find it "within" their "higher self", they work on feelings. If it feels right, it must be right.

Why do different cosmic humanists come to different conclusions about reality?

Truth is relative, no standards.

According to cosmic humanists, what is the only substance that actually exists?


Why is the statement "God so loved the world" not jibeing for cosmic humanists?

1. They don't believe in God 2. There are no ultimate truths

What is literary deconstruction?

It doesn't matter the original author's intent, its what YOU get out of it, what it means to YOU.

What is the correspondence theory of truth?

If its real, then it must be true. They reject it because there's no standard, absolute, reality. Its subjective.

What are the 2 major differences between S.H/Marxists?

1. Method (S.H.- Evolution, survival of the fittest, legislation, education, media/ Marxism-All of S.H. + revolution/voilence) 2. Agenda (S.H.-goal is for peace, one world govt., harmony/ Marxist-goal is utopia, classless society, no govt., redistribute wealth)

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