Red EOC Book: Chapter 2 Terms (Standard 1)
Terms in this set (50)
French and Indian War
Nine year war in which the British fought against France and its Native American allies for control of North America. The British ultimately won.
Writs of Assistance
General search warrants that allowed British authorities to search whatever they wanted for whatever reason. The British used these writs to board and search colonial ships as a way of enforcing the Navigation Acts.
Proclamation of 1763
Proclamation issued by King George III, forbade colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains and put the territory under British military control.
Law which taxed nearly all printed material by requiring that it bear a government stamp.
"No Taxation Without Representation"
Protest made by colonists in which they appealed to the fact that they had no representation in Parliament as justification for why they should not be obligated to pay British taxes.
This act stated that Parliament had the authority to impose laws on the colonies.
Event that occurred on March 5, 1770 in which British soldiers who felt threatened by a mob of angry protesters fired shots that left several colonists dead or dying. The event was depicted as a brutal slaying of innocent civilians and increased colonial resentment.
Boston Tea Party
Protest in which colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians, raided British ships, and dumped crates of British tea into Boston Harbor.
Coercive / Intolerable Acts
Passed by Parliament in response to the Boston Tea Party, these acts closed Boston Harbor and placed a military governor over Massachusetts. In addition, England expanded the Canadian border, thereby taking land away from certain colonies.
First Continental Congress
Meeting of colonial representatives that convened in September 1774 in order to deal with the crisis of what they viewed as oppressive British laws. In a statement to the King, the Congress wrote that the colonists had a right to be represented in their government and, since they were not represented in Parliament, therefore were entitled to govern themselves.
Lexington and Concord
Confrontation in which the first shots of the war were fired.
Second Continental Congress
Second meeting of colonial representatives convened in 1775 to deal with the events at Lexington and Concord. The Congress ultimately voted to declare independence.
Author of the Declaration of Independence, champion of the Democratic-Republicans (anti-Federalists) who believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution, secretary of state to George Washington, and the third President of the United States.
The idea that all men are created equal.
Natural rights that government cannot morally take away. Among these rights are "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
Declaration of Independence
Document drafted by Thomas Jefferson and signed by representatives to the Second Continental Congress that officially proclaims that the United States is a free and independent nation.
Commander of the US Continental Army and first president of the United States.
Victory won by US forces under Horatio Gates that was especially important because it convinced the French that the US could possibly win the war and encouraged them to offer the US military assistance.
Site of the final major battle of the revolutionary war and where Cornwallis surrendered to Washington.
Articles of Confederation
First attempt by the United States at a national body of laws. It failed because it did not give enough power to the federal (national) government to lead effectively.
United States Consitution
Body of national laws for the United States of America which also serve as the framework of the nation's government.
Great Compromise / Connecticut Plan
Compromise plan proposed at the Constitutional Convention that was adopted by the delegates. It established a legislative branch with two houses.
Compromise at the Constitutional Convention that stated each slave would count as "three-fifths" a person in terms of the population.
Slave Trade Compromise
Under this agreement, Northerners who opposed the slave trade agreed to allow it to continue for twenty years, after which time Congress could impose regulations.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution which stem from many of the principles expressed in the Declaration of Independence and which are intended to protect the civil rights of citizens.
Faction/political party that favored a strong central government and supported the Constitution. They tended to have a loose interpretation of the Constitution, favored the interest of business over agriculture, and were led by men like Alexander Hamilton.
Faction that opposed the Federalists and wanted to see stronger state governments. They eventually formed the foundation of the Democratic-Republican party. They tended to favor farming over business and had a strict interpretation of the Constitution. Thomas Jefferson was one of their main leaders.
Loose vs. Strict Interpretation of the Constitution
A loose interpretation is the view that the Constitution grants the federal government the authority to take certain actions not specifically stated in the document so long as such actions are deemed necessary for carrying out the government's constitutional responsibilities. By contrast, a strict interpretation asserts that the federal government can only do what the Constitution specifically says.
Written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay in order to make their case for the Constitution and to persuade New York's legislature to ratify it.
Washington's secretary of the treasury and one of the Federalist main leaders. His economic plan helped the nation's economy survive following the ratification of the Constitution.
Believed in a strong national government, felt that political power should be entrusted to the educated upper classes, and supported business over agriculture. Hamilton was a key figure in the Federalist party.
Arose in opposition to the Federalists. Their leader was Thomas Jefferson. They favored stronger state governments and a weaker national government.
Naturalization, Alien, and Sedition Acts
Acts passed by the Federalists which established residency requirements for citizenship, allowed for the arrest and detainment of suspicious foreigners, and placed restrictions of free speech.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
These resolutions stated that if a state believed a federal law to be unconstitutional, then it did not have to obey or enforce it. They established the doctrine of nullification.
Doctrine of Nullification
Idea that states can nullify (not be bound by) a national law that they believe violates the Constitution.
A form of government in which the people elect representatives to vote on matters, pass laws, and set public policy for them.
A form of government in which the people rule by voting or voicing their opinions.
Separation of Powers
System in which power is divided among more than one branch of government in order to prevent any one body or individual from becoming too powerful.
Checks and Balances
System in which one branch of government has certain ways to "check" the powers of other branches.
System in which power is shared between more than one level of government.
Branch responsible for making the laws (Congress).
House of Representatives
House of Congress based on each state's population.
House of Congress in which each state has two representatives.
Branch responsible for enforcing the laws (the president, vice president).
President of the United States
Chief Executive of the United States and commander in chief of the nation's military forces. He/she serves as the nation's leader.
Branch of government responsible for making sure laws are administered appropriately.
When the court uses past legal decisions to make rulings of law because there is no written law or its meaning is open to debate.
Marbury v. Madison
Court case that established the Supreme Court's authority of judicial review.
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who wrote the majority opinion in Marbury v. Madison.
Power of the Supreme Court to declare acts of Congress and/or state legislatures unconstitutional.