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Survey of Chemistry Final
Terms in this set (345)
General chemistry is the study of
the composition, properties, and reactions of matter.
Which of these is not a step in the Scientific Method? Observation, Hypothesis, Experiments, Law
Information determined by noting and recording a natural phenomenon describes which step in the Scientific Method?
When a hypothesis is confirmed by many scientists, it may become a
Which of the following represents a hypothesis?
Students who read the chapter and do the homework get A's, while students who do not get D's.
Which of the following would be described as a chemical? Salt, Sleeping, Energy, Singing
Which of the follow is not a chemical? Salt, Vanilla, Sugar, Feeling Cold
A "chemical-free" shampoo includes the following ingredients: water, cocomide, glycerine, and citric acid. Is the shampoo truly "chemical-free"?
No, any acid is a chemical.
A "chemical-free" sunscreen includes the following ingredients: titanium dioxide, vitamin E, and vitamin C. Is the sunscreen truly "chemical-free"?
No, titanium dioxide is a chemical.
Observation or Hypothesis: Aluminum melts at 660C.
Observation or Hypothesis: Marble statues undergo corrosion in acid rain.
Observation or Hypothesis: Statues corrode in acid rain because the acidity is sufficient to dissolve calcium carbonate, the major substance of marble.
Observation or Hypothesis: Dinosaurs became extinct when a large meteorite struck Earth and caused a huge dust cloud that severely decreased the amount of light reaching Earth.
Positive of Negative Sign: Two negative numbers are added.
Positive of Negative Sign: A positive and negative number are multiplied.
Solve for the value of a in the equation: 5a+11=36
Solve for the value of z in the equation 4z/-12=-8
A bag of gumdrops contains 16 orange gumdrops, 8 yellow gumdrops, and 16 black gumdrops. What is the percent of yellow gumdrops?
A bag of gumdrops contains 16 orange gumdrops, 8 yellow gumdrops, and 16 black gumdrops. What is the percent of black gumdrops?
A bag of gumdrops contains 16 orange gumdrops, 8 yellow gumdrops, and 16 black gumdrops. What is the percent of orange gumdrops?
You notice that there is more traffic between 8 and 9 in the morning. This would be a(n)
There is more traffic between 8 and 9 in the morning because most people start work at 9. This is an example of a(n)
In order the enhance your learning in chemistry, you should not
wait until the night before the exam to study.
One way to enhance your learning in chemistry is to
study a little every day, form a study group, go to office hours, be an active learner. (all the above)
In the measured number 12.345 ft, the 4 is in the __________ place.
In the measured number 12.345 ft, the 1 is in the ____________ place.
The measurement 0.000043 m, expressed correctly using scientific notation, is
The number 680000000 cm is expressed correctly using scientific notation is
Which of the following number is the smallest? 4.0
The measurement of the gravitational pull on an object is its
The amount of space occupied by a substance is its
Which of the following is the basic unit of volume in the metric system?
Which of the following is the SI unit of mass?
A value of 25C is a measurement of
State the type of measurement indicated: 45.6 g.
State the type of measurement indicated: 1.6 cm.
State the type of measurement indicated: 1.25 m^3.
State the type of measurement indicated: 42C.
State the name of the unit and the type of measurement: 4.5 m.
Meter and length.
State the name of the unit and the type of measurement: 1.4 L.
Liter and volume.
State the name of the unit and the type of measurement: 480 s.
Seconds and time.
State the name of the unit and the type of measurement: 25 C.
Celsius and temperature.
State the name of the unit and the type of measurement: 324 K.
Kelvin and temperature.
State the name of the unit and the type of measurement: 16 kg.
Kilogram and mass.
Know the metric conversion chart!!!!!!!!!!
Do you know it?
State the name of the unit and identify the unit as a metric/SI unit or not: 5.3 L.
State the name of the unit and identify the unit as a metric/SI unit or not: 25 s.
State the name of the unit and identify the unit as a metric/SI unit or not: 46 kg.
State the name of the unit and identify the unit as a metric/SI unit or not: 26 C.
State the name of the unit and identify the unit as a metric/SI unit or not: 16 in.
State the name of the unit and identify the unit as a metric/SI unit or not: 6.0 miles.
What is the abbreviation for gram.
What is the abbreviation for liter.
What is the abbreviation for degree celsius.
What is the abbreviation for second.
Write as a standard number: 1.2*10^4 s.
12,000 s (seconds).
Write as a standard number: 5.8*10^-3 m^3.
How many significant figures does this number have? 0.000250 m
How many significant figures does this number have? 70.040 g
How many significant figures does this number have? 1020000 L.
How many significant figures does this number have? 2.0*10^2 m.
Write in scientific notation with two significant figures. 5100000 g.
Write in scientific notation with two significant figures. 0.000820 kg.
Measured or exact? Number of sig figs. 42.2 g.
Measured, 3 SF's.
Measured or exact? Number of sig figs. 3 eggs.
Measured or exact? Number of sig figs. 5.0*10^-3 cm.
Round of to 3 SF's: 1.854 kg.
Round of to 3 SF's: 0.004738 cm.
Round of to 3 SF's: 8807 m.
Solve with correct number of SF's: 84.51+1.245+0.00056g=
Solve with correct number of SF's: 5.768
4.82*10^-2 L= _____________ PL
5*10^-4 kg= ____________ micrograms
In radiological imaging such as PET or CT scans, dosage of pharmaceuticals are based on body mass. If a person weighs 165 lb, what is their body mass in kilograms?
A filled gas tank contains 18.5 gal of fuel. If a car uses 46.0 L, how many gallons of fuel remain in the tank?
An object has a mass of 3.35 grams. When is it submerged in a graduated cylinder initially containing 325.2 mL of water, the water level rises to 442.5 mL. What is the density (g/mL) of the object?
Anything that has mass and occupies space:
An element or a compound that has a definite composition:
The physical combination of two or more substances that does not change the identities of the substances:
A pure substance consisting of two or more elements with a definite composition that can be broken down into simpler substances only by chemical methods.
A pure substance containing only one type of matter that cannot be broken down by chemical methods.
Element of Compound? Iron
Element of Compound? Potassium Iodide
Element of Compound? Aluminum
Element of Compound? Carbon Dioxide
Element of Compound? Gold
Element of Compound? Pure Table Salt
Pure Substance or Mixture? Bananas and milk.
Pure Substance or Mixture? Silver
Pure Substance or Mixture? Water
Pure Substance or Mixture? A bag of raisins and nuts.
Homogeneous or Heterogeneous? Air
Homogeneous or Heterogeneous? Sand and Water
Homogeneous or Heterogeneous? Vinegar
A pure substance is matter that consists of matter with a composition that:
is fixed in a definite proportion at all times.
Compounds are pure substances that by definition consist of:
two or more elements in combination.
Compounds can be broken down into their elements by:
Which of the following is a compound? Hg, NaCl, Al, Au, or Ti
Which of the following is a chemical change? Wood burning in a fireplace, ice melting to water, chopping wood for a fire, sewing a button on a shirt, or pouring water into a glass.
Wood burning in a fireplace.
Which of the following is a physical change? Wood burning in a fire place, water freezing, iron rusting, digesting food, milk souring.
Which of the following is an example of a chemical change? Grinding pepper, melting candle wax, freezing water, digesting a hot dog, cracking an egg.
Digesting a hot dog.
What is a property of a solid?
The particles have fixed positions and are very close together.
What property describes a liquid?
Its particles are close together and move randomly.
On a hot day, the thermometer reads 95 F. What is the temperature is degrees Celsius?
A patient has a temperature of 38.5 C. What is the temperature is degrees Fahrenheit?
An example of kinetic energy is:
The energy associated with the motion of particles in a substance is called:
The phrase "ability to do work" is a definition of:
The energy of 3600 cal is equal to ____________ kj.
The energy of 4.72 kJ is the same as __________ cal.
The energy stored in the chemical bonds of a molecule is:
Global warming is believed to result from all of the following EXCEPT: burning of fossil fuels, increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, deforestation, movement of the earth closer to the sun, carbon dioxide trapping the heat produced by the sun.
Movement of the earth closer to the sun.
How many kilojoules are required to raise the temperature of a 150 g sample of silver from 25 C to 135 C? Silver has a specific heat of 0.235J/g C.
What is not required to calculate the amount of heat energy required to heat water from 25 C to 55 C?
The heat of vaporization for water.
A potato contains 20 g of carbohydrate. If carbohydrate has a caloric value of 4 kcal/g, how many kcal are obtained from the carbohydrate in the potato?
A cheeseburger from a fast food restaurant contains 20 g of carbohydrate, 19 g of fat, and 28 g of protein. How many kcal of energy does the cheeseburger contain? (The accepted caloric values for foods are 4 kcal/g for carbohydrate, 9 kcal/g for fat, and 4 kcal/g for protein.) Round to the tens place.
True of False: A kilogram is a unit volume.
True of False: A liter is a unit of volume.
True of False: The number 1.2
10^-5 is larger than the number 1.2
True of False: The number 1.3
10^4 is smaller than the number 1.3
True of False: The measurement 1.230 cm has 4 significant figures.
The measurement 0.03550 has four significant figures.
When the measurement 3.32 cm is multiplied by the measurement 0.02 cm, the answer will have three significant figures.
When the measurement 13.36 cm is added to the measurement 0.02 cm, the answer will be 13.38 cm.
A microgram is larger than a gram.
Water (density=1.00 g/mL) will float on hexane (density=0.95 mL).
The mass of 10.0 mL of water is approximately 10.0 kg.
The symbol for aluminum is
The symbol for iron is
The symbol for sodium is
The symbol for potassium is
The symbol for silver is
Ca is the symbol for
What elements are is hydrocyapatite, Ca5(PO4)3OH, a major compound in human bones and teeth?
calcium, phosphorus, oxygen, hydrogen
The element that has the symbol Ti is
The element that has the symbol Pb is
The element that has the symbol Ni is
Magnesium is an element that is one example of
an alkaline earth metal.
Sodium is an example of an element that is a
Chromium is an example of an element that is a
One characteristic of the element sulfue is that it is
a good insulator of electricity.
Silicon is an example of an element that is
Germanium is an example of a(n)
Germanium is an example of a(n)
What is a characteristic of a modern periodic table?
The elements in each group have similar chemical properties.
What property is NOT a characteristic of the Group 1A(1) elements (alkali metals)?
Most of them are liquids at room temperature.
The group 8A(18) elements
Which of the following elements is a metal?
The element in this list with chemical properties similar to magnesium is
Identify the noble has in the following list.
Which of the following is a characteristic of nonmetals?
Low melting points.
Which of the following elements is a noble gas?
Which is a metalloid?
Semiconductors are located in the periodic table on (or in) the
line dividing metals from nonmetals in the table.
Which element would have physical and chemical properties similar to chlorine?
What is the symbol of the element in Period 4 and Group 2A (2)?
Which of the following descriptions of a subatomic particle is correct?
A proton has a positive charge and a mass of approximately 1 amu.
In an atom, the nucleus contains
all the protons and neutrons.
Protons, neutrons, and electrons are examples of
A neutron has an electrical charge of
The lightest of the subatomic particles is the
The atomic number of fluorine is
The atomic mass of lithium is
An atom of chlorine has an electrical charge of
The atomic number of iron is
The atomic number of an atom is equal to the number of
The number of neutrons in an atom is equal to the
mass number - the atomic number.
The mass number of an atom can be calculated from the
number of protons plus neutrons.
Which of the following gives the correct numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a neutral atom of 118^50 Sn?
50 protons, 68 neutrons, 50 electrons
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have
the same atomic number but different numbers of neutrons.
The correct symbol for the isotope of potassium with 22 neutrons is
The correct symbol for the isotope of carbon with a mass number of 14 is
The correct symbol for a uranium atom with a mass number 235 is
The atomic mass of an element is equal to
a weighted average mass of all of the naturally occurring isotopes of the element.
A sample of chlorine has two naturally occurring isotopes. The isotope Cl-35 (mass 35.0 amu) makes up 75.8% of the sample, and the isotope Cl-37 (mass=37.0 amu) makes up 24.3% of the sample. What is the average atomic mass for chlorine?
Which of the following is NOT true for the atoms 13N, 14N, and 15N?
They all have the same mass number.
The elements lithium, sodium, and potassium
are in the same group.
One mol of particles of any substance contains how many particles?
Avogadro's number is the number of
particles in 1 mol of a substance.
A sample of sodium containing Avogadro's number of atoms has a mass of
1.00 mol of neon has a mass of
One mol of potassium has a mass of
One mol of helium gas gas a mass of
Which of the following quantities has the smallest mass?
4 mol He
The molar mass of C3H8O2 (four significant figures) is
Calculate the molar mass of magnesium chloride MgCl2.
What is the mass, in grams, of 6.11 mol of MgCl2.
How many moles of water, H20, are present in 75.0 g H2O.
The number of valence electrons found in an atom of a Group A element is equal to
its group number.
Valence electrons are electrons located
in the outermost energy level of an atom.
In an electron-dot structure of an element, the dots are used to represent
the valence electrons.
One element that has 5 valence electrons is
One element that has 7 valence electrons is
Neon has ____ valence electrons.
Calcium has ____ valence electrons.
Potassium has ____ valence electrons.
Silicon has ____ valence electrons.
Ocygen has ____ valence electrons.
The visible light spectrum covers the wavelength range
400 to 700 nm.
Infrared radiation has a shorter wavelength than
All electromagnetic radiation travels at the same
The energy of a visible LIGHT is higher than that of
Atomic emission spectra are due to electrons
in an atom dropping from one energy level to a lower one.
The energy of an ultraviolet light photon with wavelength 100.0 nm is
The energy of a visible light photon with wavelength 400.0 nm is
Select the element with the higher ionization energy. Na or Rb
Select the element with the higher ionization energy. Ca or Br
Select the element with the higher ionization energy. Si or Cl
Select the element with the larger atomic radius. Na or Rb
Select the element with the larger atomic radius. Ca or Br
Select the element with the larger atomic radius. Si or Cl
The octet rule indicates that
atoms lose, gain, or share valence electrons to have 8 valence electrons.
In ionic compounds, ________ lose their valence electrons to form positively charged ________.
How many electrons will aluminum gain or lose when it forms an ion?
what is the symbol for the ion with 19 protons and 18 electrons?
To form an ion, a sodium atom
loses one electron.
An anion always
has a negative charge.
What is the correct formula for the oxide ion?
What is the formula of the nitride ion?
According to the octet rule, sulfide ions should have a charge of
A sodium ion is an example of a(n)
Magnesium chloride has the following formula.
An ionic compound
has a net charge of zero.
Which one of the following compounds contains an ion with a 3+ charge?
The compound MgCl2 is name
Magnesium (II) Chloride
Which element forms two or more ions with different ionic charges>
What is the correct name for LiBr?
Magnesium oxide has the following formula.
Potassium phosphide has the following formula.
What is the nuclear symbol for a radioactive isotope of copper with a mass number of 60?
60 over 29 Cu
The nuclear symbol of helium 4 over 2 He, is also the symbol for a(n)
The symbol 0 over -1 e is a symbol used for a(n)
Which of the following types of radiation has the highest energy>
Which is NOT a way to minimize your exposure to radiation?
staying a longer time
According to the follow equation, radon decays into what atom? 222 over 86 Rn--->? + 4 over 2 He
218 over 84 Po
Manganese-49 emits a positron to form
49 over 24 Cr.
In the nuclear equation for decay of a beta emitter, the new nucleus
contains 1 more proton.
In a discussion of a radiation poisoning or other toxicities, the amount of exposure that leads to the death of 50% of the population is called the
The half-life of bromine-74 is 25 min. How much of a 4.0 mg sample is still active after 75 min?
Why is it important that radioisotopes used in diagnostic tests have short half-lives?
This minimizes the harmful side effects of the radiation.
The isotope 126 over 50 Sn decays to 126 over 51 Sb. What type of radiation does it emit?
0 over -1 e
True of False: The correct symbol for hydrogen-3 is 3 over 2 He.
True of False: X rays are generated by the nucleus during radioactive decay.
True of False: Exposure to radiation is unavoidable because some radioactive elements occur naturally.
True of False: One symptom of radiation sickness is an increased production of red blood cells.
True of False: One mCi of a radioactive substance emits more radiation than one uCi of the same substance.
True of False: Irradiation of food for sterilization is usually carried out using gamma irradiation.
The number of electron lone pairs in the water molecule is
The lone pair of electrons in the ammonia molecule is located
on the nitrogen atom.
How many covalent bonds will a nitrogen atom normally make?
How many convalent bonds will an oxygen atom normally make?
Which of the following compounds contains an ionic bond?
Ionic bonding is expected in which of these compounds?
The ability of an atom to attract the shared electrons in a covalent bond is its
If the electronegativity difference between elements X and Y is 2.1, the bond between the elements X-Y is
Which of the following substances contains a nonpolar bond? H2O; NaCl; NH3; MgF2; N2
The water molecule has a dipole with teh negative portion
pointing toward the oxygen atom.
The dipole in the nitrogen-hydrogen bond (N-H) points
from the hydrogen to the nitrogen.
The difference in electronegativity between hydrogen and sulfur in 0.4. What type of bond is found in the molecule H2 S?
The difference in electronegativity between potassium and oxygen is 2.7. What type of bond is expected in the compound K2 O?
In water, the boiling point is unusually high because of
hydrogen bonding between the molecules.
Hydrogen bonds are a major factor in the structure of
The VSEPR theory allows us to determine the
shape of a molecule.
The shape of a molecule of methane, CH4, is
The shape of a molecule of water, H2 O, is
A molecule has a central atom and three identical bonds to other atoms, with no lone pairs. The shape of this molecule is
The O-H bond in water is polar because
oxygen is much more electronegative than hydrogen.
A hydrogen bond is
an attraction between a hydrogen atom attached to N, O, or F and an N, O, or F atom attached to another molecule.
In a solution, the solvent
can be a liquid, solid, or gas.
Which of the following molecules can form hydrogen bonds? CH4; NaH; H2 O; BH3; HI
A solution is prepared by dissolving 2 g of KCL in a 100 gof H2 O. In this solution, H2 O is the
Oil does not dissolve in water because
oil is nonpolar.
When KCl dissolves in water
the K+ ions are attracted to the partially negative oxygen atoms of the water molecules.
Water is a polar solvent and hexane (C6 H14) is a nonpolar solvent. Which of the following correctly describes the solubility of the solute?
NaHCO3, soluble in water
When sucrose, C12 H22 )11, is dissolved in water, the sucrose is classified as the
Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid in water. At room temperature (25 C), vinegar is an example of a _______________ solution.
Which of the following statements is NOT true about water?
The water molecule is linear.
Rubbing alcohol is 70.0% isopropyl alcohol by volume. How many mL of isopropyl alcohol are in a full 1 pint (473 mL) container?
The molarity (M) of a solution refers to
moles of solute/L of solution.
What is the molarity of a solution that contains 2.35 g of NH3 in 0.0500 L of solution?
Gout is due to the deposition of crystals of _____________ in the joints.
The mass percent (m/m) concentration refers to the number of grams of solute in
100 g of solution.
What is the mass percent (m/m) concentration of a solution of 10.0 g of sodium chloride in 100. g of solution?
What is the mass percent (m/m), of a solution prepared from 50.0 g NaCl and 150.0 g of water?
A solution containing a large concentration of dissolved ions can be classified as a(n)
A solution of an electrolyte in water will
carry an electric current.
In water, a substance that ionizes completely in solution is called a
When the weak electrolyte HF is dissolved in water, the solution contains
mostly HF molecules and a few H+ and F- ions.
When the nonelectrolyte glucose is dissolved in water, the solution contains
all glucose molecules.
When some of the sugar added to iced tea remains undissolved at the bottom of the glass, the solution is
An increase in the temperature of a solution usually
increases the solubility of a solid solute in the solution.
Which one of the following compounds will NOT be soluble in water?
According to Henry's law, the solubility of a gas in a liquid
increases as the gas pressure above the liquid increases.
At 26 C, the solubility of sodium chloride is 36 g/ 100 mL of solution. How would you describe a solution of 10 g of sodium chloride in 100 mL of solution at room temperature?
In a saturated solution, the rate at which the solute dissolves
equals the rate crystallization of the solute.
The solubility of carbon dioxide in soda water
is lower as the temperature increases.
A solid that comes out of a solution as its solubility is exceeded is called a
At 40 C, the solubility of KNO3 is 65 g/100 g water. How many grams of KNO3 will dissolve in 120 g of water at 40 C?
78 g KNO3
Which of the following is correctly identified?
NaOH, strong base
Ammonia is a weak base because
it produces few hydroxide ions in water.
Acetic acid is an example of
a weak acid.
A solution with a pH of 4 is
In a hydrochlowic acid solution, where the [HCl] is 0.010 M, what is the pH?
List the pH values from the most basic to the most acidic.
14, 10, 7, 4, 3, 1
Stomach acid consists mainly of what substance dissolved in water?
An acid and base react to form a salt and water in a(n) ________ reaction.
In a neutralization reaction,
an acid and a base react to form a salt and water.
The function of a buffer is to
maintain the pH of a solution.
According to the Arrhenius concept, if HNO3 were dissolved in water, it would act as
The name given to an aqueous solution of HBr is
One example of an Arrhenius base is
In water solution, the conjugate base of HF is
According to the Bronsted-Lowry definition,
a base is a proton acceptor.
Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acid in the following reaction. H2 O+ CO 2- over 3---> HCO 3- + OH-
The conjugate acid of NH3 is
The conjugate acid of NO 2- is
Identify each of the following compounds as an acid, a base, or neither. CO 2- over 3
Identify each of the following compounds as an acid, a base, or neither. NaCl
Identify each of the following compounds as an acid, a base, or neither. CN-
Identify each of the following compounds as an acid, a base, or neither. H2 CO3
During the process of diluting a solution to a lower concertration,
the amount of solute does not change.
A solution of artificial tears is 0.090% (m/m) sodium chloride. How many grams of sodium chlowide are contained in 1.00 g of this solution?
The compound butyne contains
a triple bond.
Long-chain molecules that consist of many repeating units are called
Small molecules that make up the repeat unit in polymers are called
What does a phenol compound look like?
A benzene compound looks like:
A carbohydrate that gives two molecules when it is completely hydrolyzed is known as a
Which group of carbohydrates cannot be hydrolyzed to give smaller molecules?
When starch is broken into monosaccharides, the carbohydrate formed is
Which building block of proteins are
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