Christian Scriptures Final Exam - Kennedy
Terms in this set (255)
What does the New Testament bear?
What is the Roman Empire based on?
Idealogy of stability and order
What was the Roman infrastructure?
Built roads so goods and services could be brought the Italy, drove out piracy to increase sea transportation
What was the Roman Upper Social Class?
Sentorial (relatives who served in Roman senate), equestrian (wealthy landowners), women (politically and socially powerless but had influence in the house)
What was the Roman Lower Social Class?
Plebians or commons ("common" jobs), foreigners, freed people (former slaves), current slaves, women
What were public displays of class in Roman culture?
Patronage (agreement between 2 groups in which they would do favors for each other), images, clothing
Worship multiple gods
What is the polytheistic hierarchy?
One god, great gods, local/regional dieties, divine beings, demigods, divinized humans, humans
What was the state/traditional religion in Rome?
Saw that the state was established by the gods (no separation), gods brought peace and prosperity to state when paid homage to
What are mystery religions?
Worship done in secrecy brought from eastern regions ; appealed to lower classes because it taught equality
What 3 groups of Judaism were there in the 1st century?
Pharisees, Zealots, and Sadducees
What is eschatology?
Apocalyptic appearing of the Messiah
What will the appearing of the Messiah bring?
The kingdom of God, resurrection of the dead, and the destruction of the present age
What carries forward the gospel of Luke?
When was Luke written?
Doesn't explicitly state, but sometime in the late 1st century
Who is Theophilus?
Patron of the community who wrote Luke
What has formal introductions like Luke?
Greek and Roman histories
What echoes the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms?
Who is Zechariah?
A priest (he is also mute)
What happens to Zechariah in the temple?
An angel appears and tells him that his wife Elizabeth will have a son named John
Who is Herod the Great?
King of Judea
Who appears to Mary and tells her that she will have a baby named Jesus?
Who is Gaius Octavius (Augustus)?
Ruled as emperor
What was used to control taxes, lands, and militaries?
What does Virgil, a Roman poet, suggest?
That the ideal ruler is a shepard of the people born to a simple shepard.
Who blesses Jesus?
Simeon and Anna
How did Jesus gain his wisdom?
He stayed back at the temple during the Passover
Who is Pontius Pilate?
Governor of Judea
What is the Call of Simeon like? (fish overflow in boats and God calls Simeon to minister)
Call of Moses, Gideon, and Isaiah
What angered the synagogue leaders?
Jesus healed a woman on the Sabbath
What does Jesus do when he includes the poor, crippled, lame, and blind for the feast?
Challenges purity rules and resurrects righteousness
What does the cup represent?
Jesus' blood poured out as a sacrifice
Who denies that he doesn't know Jesus 3 times?
When did the people realize Jesus was resurrected?
Once they took the Passover
What are Simeon Peter, Nathanael, Andrew and Philip?
What is inadequate faith based on?
What is the key to Jesus' authority?
God is the Father who sent him to make the Father known
Who is Nicodemus and what does he represent?
He is a Pharisee that represents inadequate faith based on signs
What story in John resembles the narrative of finding Issac a wife?
Jesus meeting a samaritan woman at the well ; she does not understand the meaning of "living water" that Jesus offers
When does Jesus heal a boy?
What miracle is considered a controversy?
Jesus tells a paralyzed man to take his mat and walk to become healed on the sabbath
What phrases enforce themes?
"I Am" , "I am the bread of life"
How does Nicodemus defend Jesus?
Gives him a trial
What makes Jesus' testimony valid?
Knowledge of Jesus' origin and destiny
Why is the good shepard good?
He lays down his life for his sheep
What does Jesus intend for Lazarus' sickness to be used for?
What does Jesus exemplify when he washes the disciples feet?
How does Judas Iscariot betray Jesus?
He lets Satan enter him
Who took Jesus' body and buried it properly?
Joseph of Arimathea
How does Mary Magdalene find out Jesus has been resurrected?
She mistakes him for a gardener but when he calls her name her eyes are opened
Who does not believe Jesus has been resurrected until he sees him?
What happens during Jesus' transfiguration?
Clouds (presence of God) come, Moses and Elijah are there, voice from cloud says "this is my son the beloved, listen to him!"
How are the temple and the fig tree related?
Fig tree represents the temple and its destruction
What does Jesus do that the Romans consider a threat?
Destroys the temple by driving out the people collecting money and selling in the temple
What does the bread symbolize?
Jesus' body (sacrifice for the kingdom of God)
What is Acts read as?
An account of the glorius march from Jerusalem to Rome
What are messianist pharisees?
Pharisees who believed that Jesus was the messiah
What are apostles?
Agents of the exalted messiah, Jesus
What do clouds represent?
A divine presence
When is the Pentecost?
50th day after Passover
What is Acts about?
Sharing the mission and prophecy of God throughout all nations.
What does the healing of the lame man fulfill?
Israel's promised restoration
What does "you are descendants of prophets" allude to in Acts?
Gives people the sense that they have the ability to decipher God's word without professional help
Who led a revolt against the Romans?
Judas the Galilean
How does Stephen threaten the temple?
He retells the story from Moses to Solomon and accuses them of not repenting like God asked
What could Peter's dream about unclean animals refer to?
Nations set apart or not chosen by God
Where were the apostles first considered Christians?
How did Peter escape from jail?
An angel helped him
What gospel does Luke most similarly mirror?
What does Luke underscore?
Jesus as one to save human beings
What does Parousia signify?
The coming of Jesus
Who is Jesus seen as in Luke?
The new Adam ; power came over Mary (like in creation) and Jesus is a "new beginning"
Who does Jesus' genealogy trace back to?
How is the activity of the spirit portrayed in Luke?
It is eschatological and its presecence
What is Luke unintentionally a continuation of?
The Former Prophets
What does the narrative about Elizabeth (being barren) exemplify in Luke?
Concern for women
What is unusual about Mary, the sister of Martha sitting at Jesus' feet?
She takes the role of a disciple which is typically not a woman's role
How does Luke exemplify his concern for women, social outcasts, and the poor?
1. Women are the first to testify Jesus' resurrection
2. Jesus is accused of being friends with tax collectors
3. Jesus allows a prostitute to anoint him
4. Jesus teaches inclusion of the social outcasts
What does prayer equal?
A relationship with God
When does Jesus pray in Luke?
At his baptism, before teaching, for the apostles, before asking who people say he is, at the transfiguration
What is an ongoing experience in history?
What does Jesus talk about on his journey from Galilee to Jerusalem?
The Christian experience of journeying through life and to the kingdom of God
What does on the road to Emmaus foreshadow?
All people throughout life will see Jesus even if we don't recognize him at first
What is Luke's portrayal of Jesus' death?
Jesus as a faithful example of suffering, jesus on trial, Jesus' instructions concerning enemies and Jesus prays for them
Which book was written late in Paul's ministry, is the longest, and has the most influence?
Why is Paul eager to visit the Christian church in Rome?
To extend his ministry with the goal of reaching Spain
What is Roman's three part structure?
1. Extended argument that the good news of Jesus is the means for God's saving work
2. God's work in Christ relates to God's work in Israel
3. Profile of what it means to live by faith
Why is the greeting in Romans longer than usual?
Paul is writing to a church he has not yet visited and wants to align himself with early Christian belief
What does "I am not ashamed" mean?
"I am confident in the gospel"
What does sin lead to?
Chaos within society and they destroy meaningful relationships
Who must experience the affects of sin and accountability towards God?
Everyone, whether living under the law or not
Who is commendable?
Uncircumcised gentiles who fulfill God's requirements
What is "the righteousness of God"?
God's integrity and ability to set things right
What is the proof of God's love?
Sending his own son to die on the cross for our sins.
What is the significance of baptism?
To ritually reenact Jesus' death and resurrection; experiencing death to life is a moral reneweal
What is the solution to the struggle to do good?
Spend time with God.
What is the function of the Spirit?
To link our experience with the risen Christ and our hope of resurrection life.
Who started the church in Corinth?
What does Paul address in 1 Corinthians?
Practical questions of congregational life
What are the features of a Pauline letter?
Greeting, thanksgiving, body, and benediction
Who ministered to the Corinthian church after Paul founded it?
What are the roles of God and the Church?
God= skilled master builder
Church= foundation for building
Who does Paul send to Corinth?
What is "The First Eucharist"?
What are peddlers of God's word?
Teachers in Rome accused for being in it for the money
What metaphor does Paul use in 2 Corinthians to describe God's foundation?
Earthly tent is weak and can be destroyed easily, but a building from God is a strong fortress
What are the churches of Macedonia?
Philippi, Thessalonica, and Beroea
What is used as the greatest example of selfless living?
What is an expression and test of faith?
Willingness to give
What are "super-apostles"?
Paul's label for competing missionaries
What does the gospel of John outline?
God's decree of Divine Pardon
When was John written?
Late 1st century without knowledge of Matthew, Mark or Luke
What is the basic message is John?
Any rebellion against God equals sin, God offers forgiveness to those who repent, Jesus is the one God has sent to declare amnesty
Why does the word become flesh in the prologue of John?
It builds a portrait of why it is important to express sovereignty of God (Word was God and the Work was with God)
Who is the personal manifestation on earth of God's decree?
What are signs in the synoptic gospels?
Acts of power
What do signs reveal?
God's presence in Jesus but only those who see them with faith
What does the sign of changing water into wine represent?
Transformation from old to new humankind
What does the sign of curing of the royal official's son and a paralytic at the pool of Bethesda represent?
Acts of divine grace shift rebellion to obedience
What does the sign of multiplication of the loaves in Galilee represent?
The Last Supper or Eucharist
What does the sign of curing the blind man in Jerusalem represent?
Divine grace heals all human blindness (figuratively)
Why does Jesus raise Lazareth from the dead in Bethany?
Shows that he is the resurrection and the light and whoever believes in Him shall not die
What do the chief priests think about Jesus when he raises Lazareth from the dead?
They believe he is a political threat
What is in the first section of the Book of Glory?
Testament of Jesus
How does Jesus exemplify service and humility towards others?
By washing his disciples feet
When Jesus commands love for each other, what does he show the world?
"Love one another as I have loved you" = who the disciples of God
What is the Promise of the Advocate?
Paraclete="one who comforts" ; Spirit of truth
What does Jesus elaborate on in his testimony?
Elaboration on nature of the Christian community "abide in me and I will abide in You"
What does being Jesus' follower bring?
Facing the world's hate (rejection, hate, exclusion, isolation, hostility)
What does Jesus ask the disciples to trust in?
The guidance of the Paraclete
What does Jesus teach in?
Parables (normally hard to understand) ; teaches plainly
Who comprehends Jesus' teaching?
What is in the second half of the Book of Glory?
Jesus' arrest, trial, death, and resurrection
What is Pilate afraid of?
Losing his power and glory
Why is Jesus seen as a threat to Pilate?
Jesus is the Son of God and Pilate is afraid of his power which leads to his crucifixtion
What does peace with God assure?
Guarantee of Amnesty
Who sees proof of Jesus' resurrection?
Thomas (sees scars in Jesus's hands)
What does the book of Acts cover?
Inevitable spread of the gospel
What is the Apostolic Commission?
Disciples still do not understand the universal impulse of Jesus' mission ; Jesus tells them they will not when but will be his witnesses
What is the messianic expectation?
Restore the kingdom to Israel
When does God validate Jesus?
During his ascension
When the disciples speak in different languages, what does this overcome?
A common barrier ; shows a miracle of the gospel
What happens to the church during the Pentecost?
The spirit descends over the church
Who sets the standard for the basic apostolic proclamation and what is it?
Peter says that Jesus died but God raised him from the dead
Why is the response of the Sadducees (temple authorities) negative?
People accepting Jesus' kingdom = loss of Roman control over the temple
Who represents the irrepressible character of the disciples witness to the resurrection?
Peter and John
Who is Stephen?
A Hellenistic Jew who preached throughout synagogues by explaining biblical history
What does the death of Stephen represent?
Followers of Jesus face certain death
What begins the Gentile Mission?
Persecution and scattering of the church
Which apostle used to capture followers and turn them in?
What does Philip do while he is in Jerusalem for Passover and Pentecost?
Baptizes an Ethiopian
Who summons Peter?
Cornelius, a centurion ; Peter later shares the gospel with him
Who is the dominant figure who expands the gentile mission?
Why is Paul arrested and sent to Rome in Acts?
Paul wants to help poverty, so he asks Christians for money but temple authorities confront him
What is Paul's earliest known letter?
What is the tone in 1 Thessalonians?
Friendly and encouraging with praise, affection, and a family feeling
What does the main body of 1 Thessalonians encourage?
Young people to stay strong in their beliefs of when the Lord will come
Who does Paul mention turned from their idols towards God?
What does "lead a life worthy" mean?
To walk a distinctive life even when an end time is not known of a world that is passing away
What does Paul charge the teachers with in Galatians?
"Perverting the gospel of Christ" because they are leading the church astray
What theme is Galatians similar to?
What is the tone in Galatians?
More aggressive because Paul's apostleship has been attacked
What does the letter to the Galatians reflect?
Affects of Christ's death on the Law (Torah) and the freedoms He has brought
What does Paul omit in Galatians?
What does the Philippians letter commend?
Why do scholars believe Philippians is actually a combination of letters?
Paul wrote them from prison and there are breaks in the letters
What does the day of Jesus Christ refer to?
The day Jesus returns
What does Christ make complete, even in difficult circumstances?
When Paul is "poured out as a libation", what does this mean?
Paul is sacrificing himself and suffering for the gospel.
What does Paul beware the Philippians about?
Dogs (greed), evil workers, and murderers
What is the most important social circumstance in Philemon?
Practice of slavery
Who is Onesimus?
Why does Paul refer to Onesimus as "my child"?
Paul guided and helped Onesimus to faith.
What are the three puzzling aspects of Ephesians?
It could be written in several communities, it lacks concern about "heresy" and the authorship is questioned
What does Ephesians address Christians as living in?
What is the purpose of spiritual gifts?
To bring the church to maturity and unity
What does the book of Romans outline?
It's Paul's understanding of the gospel
How many books in the New Testament are epistles?
22 out of the 27
What does Paul hope to do with the Roman Church?
He hopes to visit them on his way to Spain, since he did not establish this church
What is the theme of Romans?
"I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ" (fear that the gospel will not be effective or proven false) "Everyone who has faith" (leads to loyalty to Jesus) "righteousness of God" (God's capacity and willingness to pardon sin)
What is the judicial model?
Universal condition of human sin; rebellion against the sovereignty of God equals death; Jesus offers himself as payment; Jesus rising from the dead = God's acceptance
What is the participationist model?
Sin is a cosmic power and is inevitable; Jesus died rather than yielding to sin; rising from the dead = Jesus' victory over sin
What is the difference between the judicial and participationist model with sin?
Judicial - sin is human rebellion
Participationist - sin is a cosmic power that acts against creation
What is the difference between judicial and participationist with Jesus' death?
Judicial - Jesus' death is payment for sin
Participationist - Jesus' death is the defeat of sin
What is the difference between judicial and participationist with faith?
Judicial - acceptance of payment by faith
Participationist - by faith the believer participates in Jesus' victory
How does Abraham relate to Romans?
Scriptural basis for Paul's belief in justification through faith
Thessalonica is the capital of what?
Why did Paul plant churches in Thessalonica?
It was a port city that brought in and shipped out goods to the empire, so the Thessalonians could influence people
What does the thanksgiving in Thessalonians include?
Loyalty to God, reference to persecution, and the positive influence in the region
What is the possible cause of persecution in Thessalonica?
Monotheism in a polytheistic culture
Who does Paul send to Thessalonica?
What does Paul encourage the Thessalonians to do?
Exhibit high morals, live quietly and engage in labor (deflects criticism)
What reassures the Thessalonians about Jesus' return?
Paul's teachings ; assures reunion with loved ones
What does "true Christian maturity" depend on?
Fidelity to enduring spiritual wisdom and understanding
What two epistles focus on Christ as the head of the church?
Colossians and Ephesians
Why is Paul's authorship questioned in Colossians?
There is no evidence that he traveled to Colassae
What has God done for us?
Rescued us from the dark and brought us into His kingdom.
What does 1 Corinthians address?
Divisions in the church revolving around personalities and rhetorical skills
What was Paul's strategy?
Proclaimed "the word of the cross" - cross was not yet a symbol so unbelievers thought it was foolish
What questions does Paul address in 1 Corinthians?
Disputes among Christians, sexual immorality, problem of using the public courts, marriage and family, and food dedicated to idols
Why does Paul appoint the church to take communion?
The poor could not always be included in the Lord's Supper because they could not have enough food.
What gift does 1 Corinthians focus on?
Speaking in tongues
What did Jesus' followers deny?
The resurrection of the dead (Jesus followers) when Jesus returns
How many of letters did Paul write to Corinth?
It is unknown
Why was Paul defending his role as an apostle?
Others discredited him
What is the "severe" or "tearful" letter?
Where Paul defends the validity of his ministry among the Corinthians and discuss his opponents "super-apostles"
What is a "super-apostle"?
Represent accomodation and cooperation with the standards of success and achievement that define the present age
What do super apostles teach?
Christ's victory over death gives Christians victory over all material needs ; gospel of Jesus is a way to advance one's social, economic, and political status
What did super apostles boast?
Their gains and achievements ; indulge in miracles and signs to show that they are close to God
What is Paul "boast" in opposition to the super apostles?
His sufferings and his weakness in order to exalt the power of Christ
What does the reconciliation letter explain?
The significance of the tearful letter and his earlier "boasting"
What does Paul does everything in?
He does everything as an ambassador of Christ
What is the epistle to the Philippians addressed to?
The church in Philippi
Where was Phlippians written?
What was the purpose of writing Philippians?
To thank the Philippians for their financial and moral support and to comfort them in their worry about him being imprisoned ; encourages humility and service
Who does Paul warn the Philippians about?
Epaphroditus and anyone who advocates circumsion
What does the closing section of Philippians encourage?
Rejoice always, be consistent in prayer, mediate on what is right, teaches them about the paradoxes in faith
Who does Paul write Galatians to?
A group of communities in a Roman province of Asia Minor
What do the missionaries who moved into Galatia and preached the "different gospel" insist?
That the gentiles must obey the regulations of the Law (Torah) in order to follow Christ - men need to be circumcised
What is Paul's tone in Galatians?
What does Paul emphasize in his greeting in Galatians?
That he is an apostle who was sent by God since he was being degraded by outsiders
What is Paul's belief of the gospel?
Justification through faith, not by obeying the Torah
How did Paul receive the gospel?
Through a revelation of Christ
What does Paul say circumcision do?
Nullifies God's grace
What does Paul end Galatians with?
Ethical admonitions to show that he is not against the teaching of appropriate moral or ethical obligations in the Law
What is a pseudonymous?
Something written by someone other than the stated author
Ephesians was not written by Paul, but why did the author appropriate his name?
-Claim to be an interpreter of God's gospel
-Receive a reading/hearing
-Memoralize or honor Paul
How is Ephesians different than Paul's other epistles?
The style and language is different, it is liturgic and ceremonial
What is a reason that Paul did not write Ephesians?
It does not mention anything about "in Ephesus" which Paul would have included.
What is Christology?
study of who Jesus is
What was ordained before creation?
What God has done in Christ and assures forgiveness and the revelation of his will
What is the mystery of his will?
What is the seal of inheritance in Christ?
God didn't intend for the gospel to be last minute sealed with the promised with the holy spirit
Who do the ethical instuctions show in Ephesians?
How God's destiny works with daily human life
When the writer in Ephesians describes family life, what does he include?
What is the cosmic struggle?
Our enemies are spiritual evils
What is presupposed in Paul's authentic letters?
That Christ has defeated the evil spirits
What is the central theme of Colossians?
"Elemental spirits of the cosmos" as having been disarmed and defeated by Jesus
What does the description of Christ contrast him with?
Weak and evil influences
What is mysticism?
"Set your minds on things above not things on earth" ; experience the directness and joy of God by concentrated thought
What is the purpose of Paul's letter to Philemon?
To appeal to Philemon to take Onesimus back as a brother, not a slave
How does Paul know Philemon?
He is his friend and coworker
Who else is Philemon addressed to?
Apphia, Archippus, and the church ; intends for the church to decide Onesimus' fate, not just Philemon
How does Paul appeal to Philemon?
Praises him for his love and faith in Jesus
How was Onesimus a help to Paul?
Onesimus helped Paul during his imprisonment
What is the purpose of Paul addressing Epaphrus, Mark, Demas, and Luke at the end of Philemon?
They will know if Philemon treats Onesimus badly and affirm the prescence of Jesus' grace with Philemon's spirit
"The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ"
"For Christ did not send me to baptize but to proclaim the gospel, and not with eloquent wisdom, so that the cross of Christ might not be emptied of its power. 18 For the message about the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God."
"Now concerning the matters about which you wrote."
"So, I will 'boast' all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may dwell in me."
for I did not receive it from a human source, nor was I taught it, but I received it through a revelation of Jesus Christ
he has made known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure that he set forth in Christ,10 as a plan for the fullness of time, to gather up all things in him, things in heaven and things on earth.
"See to it that no one takes you captive through philosophy and empty deceit, according to human tradition, according to the elemental spirits of the universe, and not according to Christ. 9 For in him the whole fullness of deity dwells bodily . . ."
"So if you have been raised with Christ, who is seated at God's right hand, set your minds on things that are above, not on things that are on earth."
"to Apphia our sister, to Archippus our fellow soldier, and to the church in your house . . ."