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Chapter 2 Doctor Doyle Bio
Terms in this set (96)
to understand life u must understand the chemical build up of life
Why do we study chemistry in biology?
life's chemistry is tied to _ _ _ _ _.
where did life first evolve
Chemical reactions occur in cells that contain how much water?
anything that has mass and takes up space
an object's mass; the force of gravity acting on the mass of the object
___________ is constant but ___________ weight changes depending on where u are
matter is composed of
substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical means.
how many elements occur naturally (found in nature)
1 or 2 letter abbreviation of an element
a substance consisting of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio.
__________ are more common than pure elements
about _____ elements are essential to life
four elements make up _____% of the weight of most living organisms
The four elements that make up the weight of most living organisms
necessary but only needed in minute quantities
a component of hemoglobin
a molecule found in red blood cells that carry oxygen
a deficiency of __________ in you r diet will cause you to become anemic
_______ is added to processed food like cereal and pasta
examples of how to get iron healthily
red meat, pork, poultry, seafood, dark green lafy vegtables, and dried fruit
some ______ are required to prevent disease and are commonly added to foods
_____ deficiency prevents production of thyrois hormones, resulting in goiter
an enlargement of the thyroid gland due to a deficiency of Iodine in the diet
this is added salt to prevent goiter
all elements consist of one kind of ___________
smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
3 basic subatomic particles
the electrical charge of atoms
number of proton and electrons cancel out
why are atoms electrically neutral?
an atom that has an unequal number of protons and neutrons
located in the center of atom; electrons orbit this
Like charges ___________
Opposite charges ________________
the negative charge of electrons and positive charge of protons
reason electrons are kept near the nucleus
number of protons
number of protons
determines what the element is
protons + neutrons
the average mass of all the isotopes of an element found in nature; equal to its mass number
same number of protons, diff number of neutrons
different isotopes of an element have......
different isotopes of elements behave how in chemical reactions?
in these isotopes the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy
protons neutrons and electrons
Which three subatomic particles are present in chemical reactions
electrons occur in energy levels called...
1 2 or 3
an atom in the first three rows can have how many shells
electron shells are based on
1 shell, 2 electrons
Row 1 elements have _______ shell(s) and can hold _____ electrons?
2 shells, 8 electrons
Row 2 elements have _______ shell(s) and can hold _____ electrons?
3 shells, 8+ electrons
Row 3 elements have _______ shell(s) and can hold _____ electrons?
you must fill up the ______________ level shell before you can move up to the ________________ level.
12, 3, 6, 9 method
what method do we use to draw electron shells (numbers on clock)
1, 5, 8, 10 method
what method do we NOT USE to draw electron shells
atoms with a full outer shells are more ____________.
the number of electrons in the outermost shell
the chemical properties of the atom
the number of valence electrons determines what?
atoms with incomplete outer shells ___________ with other atoms in order to become more stable
sharing, donating, or receiving
how do atoms react to achieve a full valence shell
atoms that are held together by attractions
hydrogen, ionic and covalent
the 3 kinds of chemical bonds
bonds in which two atoms share on or more outer shell electrons
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
single bond share how many electrons
double bond shares how many electrons
triple bond shares how many electrons
how many alternative ways to represent common molecules are there
atoms in a covalent bond _____________ for shared electrons.
the attraction (pull) for shared electrons
more elctronegative electrons pull _________.
equal (balances out)
in molecules of only one element (hydrogen molecule H-H) the pull is ___________ because each atom has the same electronegativity
nonpolar covalent bonds
bonds formed of the same two element
H-H ; O-O;
example of nopolar convalent bonds
example of molecule with atoms of different elctronegitivites
_________________ attracts the shared electron more strongly than ____________
oxygen atom has a slightly ____________ charge
hydrogen atoms have a slightly _____________ charge
polar covalent bonds
bond when the atoms cancel out
an atom or molecule with an electrical charge resulting from gain or loss of electrons
two ions with opposite charges attract or repel?
when attractions hold ions together
NaCl ..... salt
example of ionic bond
most large molecules are held in their ____________ shape by _________ bonds
__________________ as a part of a polar covalent bond, has a partial positive charge
its pretty obvious just know it
a bond when the positively charged region is always a hydrogen atoms
atoms and molecules
the structure of __________ and ________ determines the way they behave
atoms _________ bond to from molecules
the formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen is an example of a ................
H2 + O2 ----->
chemical reactions do not create or destroy ____________ but simply rearrange it.
a chemical reaction that is essential to all life on earth
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