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119 terms

History- 1st Sem

STUDY
PLAY
shrine
areas dedicated to honor gods and goddesses
fresco
water color paintings
Trojan War
war in 1250 b.c. between Myceneans and Troy
trade
Success of Minoans was based on
economic rivalry
Trojan War may have been caused by
polis
a Greek city-state
acropolis
high part of a city, with temples
phalanx
a military formation of foot soldiers
tyrant
someone who gains power by force
legislature
law making body
aristocracy
rule by a heredity landowning elite
Athenian democracy
Democracy that gave more people a say in government than other ancient civilizations
culture
One factor that helped unify all the Greek city-states
alliance
a formal agreement between states to cooperate
direct democracy
when citizens take part in day-to-day governmental affairs
stipend
a fixed salary paid to people who held offices in government
ostracism
process to remove people who were considered a threat to their democracy
jury
a group of citizens who make the final decision in a trial
the Delian League was formed
What was one result of the Greek victory against the Persians
the Spartans didn't like the Athenian domination
the cause of the Peloponnesian War
Sparta defeated the Athens
When the Pelopennesian War ended...
philosopher
a Greek word meaning "lover of wisdom"
logic
rational thinking
Socrates
a philosopher sentenced to death for his views
Parthenon
a temple dedicated to the goddess of Athena
Herodotus
the "Father of History" in the Western world
reason and observation
Greek philosophers believed they could discover the laws of the universe through..
heliocentric
In a ______ solar system, the sun, not the earth, is at the center
assassination
the murder of a public figure
Phillip II
he gained the throne of Mycenae
Alexandria
this city was the canter of learning and the arts
conquer the Persian empire
After conquering Greece, Phillip II's dream was to...
he died
Alexander's career as a conqueror came to a hault when...
the spread of Greek culture
Alexander's most lasting achievement was...
blending of cultures
Alexander encouraged...
mathematicians
Pythagoras and Euclid were outstanding Hellenistic...
patrician
a member of the Roman landholding upper class
veto
to block a law
tribune
an official elected by plebeians to protect their interests
republic
a form of government in which the people elect some of the officials
plebeian
a member of the Roman lower class
fertile plains
Which geographic factor supported Italy's growth?
dictator
During a war, the Roman senate could choose a temporary...
adapted from Greek religion
Many Roman gods and goddesses were...
imperialism
control over foreign lands
latifundia
huge estates
Julius Caesar
absolute ruler of Rome
census
population count
Hadrian
good emperor who codified laws
Augustus
the ruler of Rome at the beginning of the empire
mosaic
a picture made from small bits of stone or glass
satirize
make fun of
aqueducts
carried water to Roman cities
Virgil
the author of Aeneid
engineering
the application of science and mathematics to develop useful structures
Greek
To which civilization did Roman culture owe the greatest debt?
historians
Livy and Tacitus were best known as Roman...
concrete
What building materials did Romans use for the rounded dome roofs they developed?
martyr
a person who suffers or dies for his or her beliefs
apostle
a Greek word meaning "a person sent forth"
clergy
people who conduct religious services
heresy
a belief contrary to official Church teaching
Paul
the man most responsible for spreading Christianity
the Jews left Judea
What was a result of the Jewish rebellion in A.D. 66?
bring salvation to the world
Jesus proclaimed that his mission was to...
Diocletian
divided Roman empire
inflation
rapid rise in prices
Constantinople
Constantine capital
Huns
violent asian nomads
mercenary
soldier serves for pay
the divided empire
Which was a major factor in the decline of Rome?
the rise of the Christian church
What factor helped preserve elements of Roman civilization?
covenant
Israelites believes that God made a ___ with Abraham
patriarchal
In a __ society, men hold the legal and moral authority
Torah
The first five books of the Hebrew Bible
prophets
Spiritual leaders who interpreted God's will to the Israelites
monotheistic
The Israelite's ____ religion made them unique in the ancient Middle East
David
Who united the twelve tribes of Israel into one kingdom?
monotheistic
How are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam similar?
artifact
an object made by humans
anthropology
the study of the origins and development of people and their societies
historian
someone who studies the past
culture
a society's was of life
archaeology
the study of past cultures through their remains
how ancient people lived
Artifacts play a key role in the study of...
Catalhuyuk
One of the first Neolithic villages
animism
the belief that spirits and other forces live in animals, objects, or dreams
Paleolithic Period
Another name for the Old stone age
Neolithic Period
period when people learned how to farm
nomad
moves from place to place in search of food
empires
some rulers of early civilizations conquered many cities and villages and created these
scribes
special workers who could only read and write
artisans
skilled craftspeople
polytheistic
believing in many gods
near major rivers
the earliest civilizations to develop were...
Sumer
the world's first civilization
cuneiform
the earliest known system of writing
hierarchy
a system for ranking groups
Fertile Crescent
a region named for its rich soils and wheat fields
ziggurat
a large stepped platform for religious ceremonies
trade
Sumerian cities became rich due to...
clay tablets
Sumerian scribes wrote wedge shaped marks on...
colonies
Phoenicians set up ___ around the Mediterranean to promote trade
Sargon
the worlds first empire was created by him
Nebuchadnezzar
The king who rebuilt the great city of Babylon
cataract
waterfall
delta
triangular land area
dynasty
a ruling family
bureaucracy
system of government
vizier
chief minister
along the banks of the Nile River
Egyptian civilizations developed...
vizier
had responsibility for overseeing irrigation, tax collection, and farming in ancient Egypt
Thutmose III
Egypt's empire expanded the farthest during the reign of...
Osiris
the god who ruled over the underworld and the Nile
hieroglyphics
the use of symbols to represent words and ideas
Amon-Re
the god from whom the pharoahs claimed their right to rule
papyrus
a writing material made from a river plant
decipher
to figure out the meaning of something
farmers
many people in ancient Egypt were