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Psychology Final Exam
Terms in this set (162)
the scientific study of the behavior of individual organisms and how environmental, physiological, mental, social, and cultural events influence these behaviors
the view that psychology's goal should be to study experience as whole rather than the sum of its parts
Freud's belief that our psychological experience is the product of the conflict between our id and our superego
the view that psychology's goal should be to study directly observable behavior and to understand how the events in the environment outside the organism produce behavior
the view that psychology's goal should be to understand human strengths, aspirations, conscious experience, free will, and potential
the subfield of psychology that aims to understand the strengths, virtues, and values of human behavior
positive psychology and multicultural/diversity
the study of memory, thinking, and reasoning, and other mental activities
a subfield of psychology that aims to understand the evolutionary pressures that shaped behavior and the adaptive function of behavior
What are the four general goals of science?
Description, prediction, explanation, and control
providing a clear understanding of when and where the observed behavior occurs
attempting to predict when and under what conditions the behavior will and will not occur and the magnitude of the behavior that might be observed
explaining why the behavior happens the way it does
applying the knowledge gained to our daily lives through the development of psychological technologies
a research method in which behavior is observed and recorded in the context where it typically occurs with as little interference from the researchers as possible
What's an advantage and disadvantage of naturalistic observation?
It provides detailed description of behavior, but is very limited and lacks generalizability.
a detailed observation of a single individual or group of individuals
What's an advantage and disadvantage of a case study?
It is a powerful research tool in forming hypothesis, but lacks generalizability
an indirect form of measurement used to collect data about individuals
What is an advantage and disadvantage of a survey?
They allow for non-invasive measurements of a wide range of behaviors, but are not always honest
a type of research where researchers manipulate one variable, which means that they expose some participants to a treatment and withhold the treatment from other participants.
What is an advantage and disadvantage of experimental research?
Maximizes experimental control, but the experimental setting is much different from the real world
a research study that involves the measurement and comparison of two or more variables
What is an advantage and disadvantage of correlational research?
It helps us to understand the degree of relationship between variables, but cannot tell us anything about what is causing the relationship between the variables.
the ability to minimize the influence of variables other than those involved in the research question
the degree to which findings from the study can be applied to situations and participants outside the original group of participants
the environmental condition the researcher manipulates during the experiment
the behavior that is being directly measured and observed
a situation in which the level of one or more independent variables has been changed, while holding as many other variables constant as possible
a situation in which variables are not changed in order to observe what the behavior looks like in normal circumstances
The difference between correlation and causation
A correlation between variables does not automatically mean that the change in one variable is the cause of the change in the values of the other variable.
prior to beginning a research project the participant, or a legal guardian or care-taker, is told of the requirements of the study, any costs associated with the study, and any potential for physical, mental, or emotional harm, an any potential benefits of the study
pre-participation informed consent
following completion of the study, participants are provided with a review of what they did in the study, an understanding of how the data will be used, information regarding any deception that was used during the study, information that might have been withheld from the informed consent, and contact info for the research team
all research is evaluated using the potential knowledge that can be gained from the study and the potential harm that can be caused to the participants
minimization of harm
All animals are given _____.
sanitary, comfortable living situations
the part of the nervous system made up of the brain and the spinal cord
central nervous system
the portion of the nervous system containing all nervous outside the central nervous system
peripheral nervous system
the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood
branching neural fibers that collect inputs from other neurons
part of the neuron that contains machinery to keep the neuron alive and functioning
a single long wire that sends electrical signal from the soma to other neurons
electrical impulse that moves from the soma through the axon
How is communication through neurons accomplished?
Sensory receptors interact with stimuli such as light, sound, temperature, and pain which is transformed into a code that is carried to the brain by a chain of neurons
tiny gap between two neurons where chemical transmission of neural messages occurs
chemical messengers manufactured by one neuron that communicate with other neurons via synapses
an organ or cell able to respond to light, heat, or other external stimulus and transmit a signal to a sensory nerve
a group of midbrain structures that contributes to our emotional experience
a midbrain structure that receives incoming sensory information passes the information onto the limbic system and the cortex
a midbrain structure that is essential to motivated behaviors such as feeding or fighting
The ___ hemisphere is usually better at speech and language.
The ____ hemisphere is usually better at spatial reasoning and facial recognition.
Where is the corpus callosum located?
above the Thalamus, under the cortex
a broad band of fibers that connects the left hemisphere of the brain to the right hemisphere
Know where the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes are located on the brain
the lobe at the posterior corner of the brain, concerned primarily with basic visual processing
the part of the context that processes visual locations and contains the primary somatosensory cortex
the part of the cortex that allows us to recognize visual objects such as faces
the area of the brain that is implicated in impulse control and personality
the transformation of one kind of energy into another kind of energy
How is transduction accomplished by the eye?
The eye works as an optical device that projects an image onto the retina, which changes the projected image into a collection of electrical signals, much like a digital camera does.
How is transduction accomplished by the ear?
The cochlea extracts the frequencies from sounds then encodes them into electrical signals that are conveyed to the brain via the auditory nerve.
the process of collecting sensory information from the outside world through the five senses
the mental experience of sensory information
the visual perception that objects remain constant even when their retinal image changes
the ability to distinguish nearby objects from the surrounding background
methods of grouping disconnected sensory fragments to form a coherent whole
Gestalt grouping principles
a Gestalt principle wherein the brain "fills in" gaps in the retinal image
a Gestalt principle in which our brain assumes that edges to vary smooth rather than abruptly
____ cues include stereopsis, eye convergence, disparity, and yielding depth
_____ cues include size: distant objects subtend smaller visual angles than near objects, grain, size, and motion parallax.
also known as respondent continuing, Pavlovian conditioning, and associative learning, involves the training of a biologically inherited behavior that is triggered by a specific evolutionary important environmental event to occur in the presence of a new stimulus.
something that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response
the unlearned response that occurs naturally in reaction to the unconditioned stimulus
a schedule in which the probability of the reinforcer is 0.0.; no reinforcers are delivered following an occurrence of the target behavior
refers to the rules that specify when reinforcement is delivered and what must be done to earn the consequence
schedules of reinforcement
occurs when the behavior is observed in the presence of stimuli used during training, but not in their absence
occurs when the conditional response is observed in the presence of stimuli that were not present during training
focuses on the relation between the behavior and the environmental changes that the behavior produces
occurs when the behavior is more likely to occur in the future due to the change produced in the environment
occurs when the environmental change makes the behavior less likely to occur in the future
is reinforcing an organism only sometimes and not everytime the desired behavior occurs
occurs when reinforcement is delivered after every single target behaviour
a schedule of reinforcement where a response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses
a schedule of reinforcement where a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses
schedule of reinforcement where a behavior is being reinforced every single time some reinforcement occurs
a schedule of reinforcement where a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed
the transformation of real world energy, such as light and sound, into an electrical code that can be stored and processed by the brain
a memory store for briefly holding sensory information (primarily sights and sounds)
a memory store containing whatever currently inhabits the conscious mind
memory of past events and facts about the world
____ is where you hold information that you are consciously aware of.
What does working memory do?
It allows you to access short-term memory for verbal information and visual information, and to process that information in the central executive
a type of declarative memory for word meanings and facts about the world
a type of declarative memory that is memories of specific events
loss of memory, typically due to brain damage
What does it mean to say that memory is reconstructive?
It means that some memories are pieced together from bits of information and influenced by several different factors that help to fill-in the blank spaces
a process in which a person begins at an initial state, and moves through a series of intermediate states to arrive at a desired state
a step-by-step procedure for solving problems that is guaranteed to work but slow
a way of solving problems that relies on inexact rules, so it is error prone but faster than algorithms
the shift in psychology from strict behaviorism to investigating ways in which the brain creates the mind
a statistical method for grouping items on a test into clusters by evaluating the correlations between items
a single factor that accounts for much of the variance in intelligence scores across individuals
general intelligence (g)
the ability to efficiently and effectively learn from experience, perform mental tasks and solve problems
How did Alfred Binet contribute to the study of intelligence?
He was one of the founders of intelligence testing, and eventually helped develop the IQ test
How do you find the IQ score?
You divide your mental age by your chronological age to create a comparison that could be used across individuals of different ages; then the quotient is multiplied by 100 and the remainder is dropped
of an exam is determined by how well it measures or predicts what it was intended to assess
refers to the consistency of the test across the entire measurement and different test taking occasions
What did Lewis Terman do?
He published the first intelligence test in the United States, the Stanford-Binet test.
meaning that the score is not biased by the test taker's cultural and social background
What percent of our intellect ability is inherited?
a person's relatively consistent pattern of thinking, feelings, and behaving
the part of Freud's structure of personality that houses primitive desires
the part of Freud's structure of personality that must find a way to act that satisfies basic desires without violating social constraints
the part of Freud's structure of personality that is the conscience, or set of ethics
What is the purpose of defense mechanisms?
To reduce anxiety
involves making "the full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, potentialities"
the beliefs an individual holds concerning his or her skills and ability to perform certain acts
Those who have an ___ LOC have been associated with more participation in the Civil Rights Movement, better physical health, higher academic performance, and less anxiety.
Those who have an ___ LOC believe that what happens to them is due to chance or fate.
At presence, consensus favors a broader approach known as _____, which conceptualizes personality as a combination of five dimensions.
"The Big Five"
What is the acronym for "The Big Five"?
OCEAN (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism)
a self-report questionnaire that clearly asks about a wide range of behaviors and feelings and assesses several traits at once
objective personality inventory
assessment instruments based on the psychodynamic perspective that are sensitive to the examiner's beliefs and area way to examine unconscious
projective personality tests
What is the purpose of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory?
It is utilized to help diagnose psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
What is the purpose of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders?
It describes symptoms and provides rules for making diagnoses; classifies mental disorders
severe mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions; symptoms include delusions and hallucinations
a mental disorder characterized by tension, excess worry, and a state of physiological arousal that has no specific trigger
generalized anxiety disorder
a psychological disorder characterized by the elevation or lowering of a person's mood, such as depression or bipolar disorder
a mental disorder characterized by a maladaptive pattern behaviors and cognitions, which often impair the ability to interact successfully in the social environment
a disorder in which use of one or more substances results in a maladaptive behavior and cognition patterns which often impair judgement, finances, and interpersonal relationships
substance use disorder
a therapeutic technique in which electric currents are sent through the brain to induce a brief seizure, which causes the brain to reverse symptoms of certain mental illnesses
surgical procedure performed on the brain in order to alleviate sever symptoms of mental illness that are not responsive to less invasive treatments
a type of therapy that helps the person/client change potentially self-destructive behavior through addressing negative thought patterns that fuel the behavior
cognitive behavior therapy
a type of psychotherapy in which the client is given an accepting, empathetic environment in which to explore and attain personal growth
a form of psychotherapy in which one or more therapists work with people/clients as a group
a form of group therapy in which therapist works with two or more family members to address dysfunctional family dynamics
the orderly sequence of biological growth
what is the difference between maturation and learning?
maturation is a reflexive process that is not influenced by the environment, but learning requires environmental influence
proponents that say development is a continuous process that is gradual and cumulative
view of development that believes that people pass through stages of life that are qualitatively different from each other
Explain the order of Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory
First sensorimotor stage, then preoperational stage, and then concrete operational stage, then finally formal operational stage
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development, occurring from birth to approximately age two, in which babies learn about the world through their senses and actions
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, occurring between ages two and six, in which children can mentally represent, but not mentally operate, objects
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development, occurring between ages six and twelve, in which children can perform mental operations as long as they have tangible materials to work with
concrete operational stage
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development, occurring at approximately age twelve, in which children should begin to demonstrate the ability to perform mental operations abstractly, without the aid of actual experience
formal operational stage
the ability to solve new problems, use logic in new situations, and identify patterns
the ability to use learned knowledge and experience
a psychological condition in which an individual experiences excessive anxiety regarding separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment
when infants play happily and readily explore new environments in the presence of their mother
when infants demonstrate behavior marked by anxiety, avoidance, or a combination of both in regard to relationships
the process by which a child becomes aware of their gender and thus behaves accordingly by adopting values and attributes of members of the sex that they identify as their own
the emotional and cognitive evaluations that we attach to people, places, objects, and ideas
the tension we experience when our attitudes and behaviors do not match motivates us to chance our attitudes to be more consistent with our behaviors
cognitive dissonance theory
the process by which individuals explain the causes of behavior and events
occurs when we assign the cause of the behavior to something within the individual, such as their personality, beliefs, or motivations
occurs when we assign the cause of the behavior to something outside the individual such as the context or other people in the situation
the error in which we tend to make more personal attributions than situational attributions when observing other's behavior
fundamental attribution error
we accept our successes as a product of personal characteristics and losses as due to situational variables
the tendency for the likelihood of receiving help to decrease as the number of people witnessing the emergency increases
the more people in the group, the less any one person is responsible for the outcome of the situation
diffusion of responsibility
is a strong positive or negative attitude toward a group of people that biases the way we think, act, and feel about the members of a particular group
the overgeneralized characteristics that we assign to all members of a perceived group
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