Psychology Final Exam

the scientific study of the behavior of individual organisms and how environmental, physiological, mental, social, and cultural events influence these behaviors
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attempting to predict when and under what conditions the behavior will and will not occur and the magnitude of the behavior that might be observedpredictionexplaining why the behavior happens the way it doesexplanationapplying the knowledge gained to our daily lives through the development of psychological technologiescontrola research method in which behavior is observed and recorded in the context where it typically occurs with as little interference from the researchers as possiblenaturalistic observationWhat's an advantage and disadvantage of naturalistic observation?It provides detailed description of behavior, but is very limited and lacks generalizability.a detailed observation of a single individual or group of individualscase studyWhat's an advantage and disadvantage of a case study?It is a powerful research tool in forming hypothesis, but lacks generalizabilityan indirect form of measurement used to collect data about individualssurveyWhat is an advantage and disadvantage of a survey?They allow for non-invasive measurements of a wide range of behaviors, but are not always honesta type of research where researchers manipulate one variable, which means that they expose some participants to a treatment and withhold the treatment from other participants.experimental researchWhat is an advantage and disadvantage of experimental research?Maximizes experimental control, but the experimental setting is much different from the real worlda research study that involves the measurement and comparison of two or more variablescorrelational researchWhat is an advantage and disadvantage of correlational research?It helps us to understand the degree of relationship between variables, but cannot tell us anything about what is causing the relationship between the variables.the ability to minimize the influence of variables other than those involved in the research questioninternal validitythe degree to which findings from the study can be applied to situations and participants outside the original group of participantsexternal validitythe environmental condition the researcher manipulates during the experimentindependent variablethe behavior that is being directly measured and observeddependent variablea situation in which the level of one or more independent variables has been changed, while holding as many other variables constant as possibleexperimental conditiona situation in which variables are not changed in order to observe what the behavior looks like in normal circumstancescontrol conditionThe difference between correlation and causationA correlation between variables does not automatically mean that the change in one variable is the cause of the change in the values of the other variable.prior to beginning a research project the participant, or a legal guardian or care-taker, is told of the requirements of the study, any costs associated with the study, and any potential for physical, mental, or emotional harm, an any potential benefits of the studypre-participation informed consentfollowing completion of the study, participants are provided with a review of what they did in the study, an understanding of how the data will be used, information regarding any deception that was used during the study, information that might have been withheld from the informed consent, and contact info for the research teampost-participation debriefingall research is evaluated using the potential knowledge that can be gained from the study and the potential harm that can be caused to the participantsminimization of harmAll animals are given _____.sanitary, comfortable living situationsthe part of the nervous system made up of the brain and the spinal cordcentral nervous systemthe portion of the nervous system containing all nervous outside the central nervous systemperipheral nervous systemthe collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and moodendocrine systembranching neural fibers that collect inputs from other neuronsdendritespart of the neuron that contains machinery to keep the neuron alive and functioningsomaa single long wire that sends electrical signal from the soma to other neuronsaxonelectrical impulse that moves from the soma through the axonaction potentialHow is communication through neurons accomplished?Sensory receptors interact with stimuli such as light, sound, temperature, and pain which is transformed into a code that is carried to the brain by a chain of neuronstiny gap between two neurons where chemical transmission of neural messages occurssynapsechemical messengers manufactured by one neuron that communicate with other neurons via synapsesneurotransmittersan organ or cell able to respond to light, heat, or other external stimulus and transmit a signal to a sensory nervereceptora group of midbrain structures that contributes to our emotional experiencelimbic systema midbrain structure that receives incoming sensory information passes the information onto the limbic system and the cortexthalamusa midbrain structure that is essential to motivated behaviors such as feeding or fightinghypothalamusThe ___ hemisphere is usually better at speech and language.leftThe ____ hemisphere is usually better at spatial reasoning and facial recognition.rightWhere is the corpus callosum located?above the Thalamus, under the cortexa broad band of fibers that connects the left hemisphere of the brain to the right hemispherecorpus callosumKnow where the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes are located on the brainthe lobe at the posterior corner of the brain, concerned primarily with basic visual processingoccipital lobethe part of the context that processes visual locations and contains the primary somatosensory cortexparietal lobethe part of the cortex that allows us to recognize visual objects such as facestemporal lobethe area of the brain that is implicated in impulse control and personalityfrontal lobethe transformation of one kind of energy into another kind of energytransductionHow is transduction accomplished by the eye?The eye works as an optical device that projects an image onto the retina, which changes the projected image into a collection of electrical signals, much like a digital camera does.How is transduction accomplished by the ear?The cochlea extracts the frequencies from sounds then encodes them into electrical signals that are conveyed to the brain via the auditory nerve.the process of collecting sensory information from the outside world through the five sensessensationthe mental experience of sensory informationperceptionthe visual perception that objects remain constant even when their retinal image changesperceptual constancythe ability to distinguish nearby objects from the surrounding backgroundfigure-ground segregationmethods of grouping disconnected sensory fragments to form a coherent wholeGestalt grouping principlesa Gestalt principle wherein the brain "fills in" gaps in the retinal imageclosurea Gestalt principle in which our brain assumes that edges to vary smooth rather than abruptlygood continuation____ cues include stereopsis, eye convergence, disparity, and yielding depthbinocular_____ cues include size: distant objects subtend smaller visual angles than near objects, grain, size, and motion parallax.monocularalso known as respondent continuing, Pavlovian conditioning, and associative learning, involves the training of a biologically inherited behavior that is triggered by a specific evolutionary important environmental event to occur in the presence of a new stimulus.classical conditioningsomething that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a responseunconditional stimulusthe unlearned response that occurs naturally in reaction to the unconditioned stimulusunconditional responsea schedule in which the probability of the reinforcer is 0.0.; no reinforcers are delivered following an occurrence of the target behaviorextinctionrefers to the rules that specify when reinforcement is delivered and what must be done to earn the consequenceschedules of reinforcementoccurs when the behavior is observed in the presence of stimuli used during training, but not in their absencediscriminationoccurs when the conditional response is observed in the presence of stimuli that were not present during traininggeneralizationfocuses on the relation between the behavior and the environmental changes that the behavior producesoperant conditioningoccurs when the behavior is more likely to occur in the future due to the change produced in the environmentreinforceroccurs when the environmental change makes the behavior less likely to occur in the futurepunisheris reinforcing an organism only sometimes and not everytime the desired behavior occurspartial reinforcementoccurs when reinforcement is delivered after every single target behaviourcontinuous reinforcementa schedule of reinforcement where a response is reinforced only after a specified number of responsesfixed ratioa schedule of reinforcement where a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responsesvariable ratioschedule of reinforcement where a behavior is being reinforced every single time some reinforcement occursfixed-intervala schedule of reinforcement where a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passedvariable-intervalthe transformation of real world energy, such as light and sound, into an electrical code that can be stored and processed by the brainencodea memory store for briefly holding sensory information (primarily sights and sounds)sensory memorya memory store containing whatever currently inhabits the conscious mindshort-term memorymemory of past events and facts about the worldlong-term memory____ is where you hold information that you are consciously aware of.short-term memoryWhat does working memory do?It allows you to access short-term memory for verbal information and visual information, and to process that information in the central executivea type of declarative memory for word meanings and facts about the worldsemantic memorya type of declarative memory that is memories of specific eventsepisodic memoryloss of memory, typically due to brain damageamnesiaWhat does it mean to say that memory is reconstructive?It means that some memories are pieced together from bits of information and influenced by several different factors that help to fill-in the blank spacesa process in which a person begins at an initial state, and moves through a series of intermediate states to arrive at a desired stateproblem solvinga step-by-step procedure for solving problems that is guaranteed to work but slowalgorithma way of solving problems that relies on inexact rules, so it is error prone but faster than algorithmsheuristicthe shift in psychology from strict behaviorism to investigating ways in which the brain creates the mindcognitive revolutiona statistical method for grouping items on a test into clusters by evaluating the correlations between itemsfactor analysisa single factor that accounts for much of the variance in intelligence scores across individualsgeneral intelligence (g)the ability to efficiently and effectively learn from experience, perform mental tasks and solve problemsintelligenceHow did Alfred Binet contribute to the study of intelligence?He was one of the founders of intelligence testing, and eventually helped develop the IQ testHow do you find the IQ score?You divide your mental age by your chronological age to create a comparison that could be used across individuals of different ages; then the quotient is multiplied by 100 and the remainder is droppedof an exam is determined by how well it measures or predicts what it was intended to assessvalidityrefers to the consistency of the test across the entire measurement and different test taking occasionsreliabilityWhat did Lewis Terman do?He published the first intelligence test in the United States, the Stanford-Binet test.meaning that the score is not biased by the test taker's cultural and social backgroundculture fairWhat percent of our intellect ability is inherited?50%a person's relatively consistent pattern of thinking, feelings, and behavingpersonalitythe part of Freud's structure of personality that houses primitive desiresidthe part of Freud's structure of personality that must find a way to act that satisfies basic desires without violating social constraintsegothe part of Freud's structure of personality that is the conscience, or set of ethicssuperegoWhat is the purpose of defense mechanisms?To reduce anxietyinvolves making "the full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, potentialities"self-actualizationthe beliefs an individual holds concerning his or her skills and ability to perform certain actsself-efficiencyThose who have an ___ LOC have been associated with more participation in the Civil Rights Movement, better physical health, higher academic performance, and less anxiety.internalThose who have an ___ LOC believe that what happens to them is due to chance or fate.externalAt presence, consensus favors a broader approach known as _____, which conceptualizes personality as a combination of five dimensions."The Big Five"What is the acronym for "The Big Five"?OCEAN (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism)a self-report questionnaire that clearly asks about a wide range of behaviors and feelings and assesses several traits at onceobjective personality inventoryassessment instruments based on the psychodynamic perspective that are sensitive to the examiner's beliefs and area way to examine unconsciousprojective personality testsWhat is the purpose of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory?It is utilized to help diagnose psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorderthe standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionalsDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersWhat is the purpose of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders?It describes symptoms and provides rules for making diagnoses; classifies mental disorderssevere mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions; symptoms include delusions and hallucinationspsychotic disordera mental disorder characterized by tension, excess worry, and a state of physiological arousal that has no specific triggergeneralized anxiety disordera psychological disorder characterized by the elevation or lowering of a person's mood, such as depression or bipolar disordermood disordera mental disorder characterized by a maladaptive pattern behaviors and cognitions, which often impair the ability to interact successfully in the social environmentpersonality disordera disorder in which use of one or more substances results in a maladaptive behavior and cognition patterns which often impair judgement, finances, and interpersonal relationshipssubstance use disordera therapeutic technique in which electric currents are sent through the brain to induce a brief seizure, which causes the brain to reverse symptoms of certain mental illnesseselectroconvulsive therapysurgical procedure performed on the brain in order to alleviate sever symptoms of mental illness that are not responsive to less invasive treatmentspsychosurgerya type of therapy that helps the person/client change potentially self-destructive behavior through addressing negative thought patterns that fuel the behaviorcognitive behavior therapya type of psychotherapy in which the client is given an accepting, empathetic environment in which to explore and attain personal growthclient-centered therapya form of psychotherapy in which one or more therapists work with people/clients as a groupgroup therapya form of group therapy in which therapist works with two or more family members to address dysfunctional family dynamicsfamily therapythe orderly sequence of biological growthmaturationwhat is the difference between maturation and learning?maturation is a reflexive process that is not influenced by the environment, but learning requires environmental influenceproponents that say development is a continuous process that is gradual and cumulativecontinuity theoryview of development that believes that people pass through stages of life that are qualitatively different from each otherdiscontinuity theoryExplain the order of Piaget's cognitive-developmental theoryFirst sensorimotor stage, then preoperational stage, and then concrete operational stage, then finally formal operational stagePiaget's first stage of cognitive development, occurring from birth to approximately age two, in which babies learn about the world through their senses and actionssensorimotor stagePiaget's second stage of cognitive development, occurring between ages two and six, in which children can mentally represent, but not mentally operate, objectspreoperational stagePiaget's third stage of cognitive development, occurring between ages six and twelve, in which children can perform mental operations as long as they have tangible materials to work withconcrete operational stagePiaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development, occurring at approximately age twelve, in which children should begin to demonstrate the ability to perform mental operations abstractly, without the aid of actual experienceformal operational stagethe ability to solve new problems, use logic in new situations, and identify patternsfluid intelligencethe ability to use learned knowledge and experiencecrystallized intelligencea psychological condition in which an individual experiences excessive anxiety regarding separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachmentseparation anxietywhen infants play happily and readily explore new environments in the presence of their mothersecure attachmentwhen infants demonstrate behavior marked by anxiety, avoidance, or a combination of both in regard to relationshipsinsecure attachmentthe process by which a child becomes aware of their gender and thus behaves accordingly by adopting values and attributes of members of the sex that they identify as their owngender-typingthe emotional and cognitive evaluations that we attach to people, places, objects, and ideasattitudesthe tension we experience when our attitudes and behaviors do not match motivates us to chance our attitudes to be more consistent with our behaviorscognitive dissonance theorythe process by which individuals explain the causes of behavior and eventsattributionoccurs when we assign the cause of the behavior to something within the individual, such as their personality, beliefs, or motivationspersonal attributionoccurs when we assign the cause of the behavior to something outside the individual such as the context or other people in the situationsituational attributionthe error in which we tend to make more personal attributions than situational attributions when observing other's behaviorfundamental attribution errorwe accept our successes as a product of personal characteristics and losses as due to situational variablesself-serving biasthe tendency for the likelihood of receiving help to decrease as the number of people witnessing the emergency increasesbystander effectthe more people in the group, the less any one person is responsible for the outcome of the situationdiffusion of responsibilityis a strong positive or negative attitude toward a group of people that biases the way we think, act, and feel about the members of a particular groupprejudicethe overgeneralized characteristics that we assign to all members of a perceived groupstereotypes