Soca 105 Final sahady


Terms in this set (...)

Which is not a reason that archaeology, of all the subfields of anthropology, is the most distinct?
It is essentially the popular activity of art collecting
Historical archeology refers to the study of:
Begins with the beginning of written history in the region under investigation
Prehistoric Archeology is concerned with archeological investigations of societies that existed prior to the beginning of written history. As a result:
All of the above
- prehistoric archeology depends exclusively on the interpretation of excavated objects and their uses to develop theories about how ancient people live
- artifacts uncovered during an excavation and the corresponding data collected are nonrenewable cultural resources
- excavations must be undertaken with great care, making sure as much data as possible is recorded about the site and recorded accurately. If data is recorded incorrectly or incompletely it is of little historical value
When we interpret some archeological data by observing similar artifacts in use among living cultures, we call it:
Ethnographic analogy
Which best describes the overall goal of archeology?
The reconstruction of past cultural systems
Test pits are used to:
Determine if a potential site is a site to decide exactly where to dig
In terms of anthropological value, the single most important aspect of an archeological dig is:
Complete and accurate record-keeping
Which of the following is used to establish horizontal control at a site?
A grid system
Non-removable artifacts, such as, hearts, pits, and walls are referred to by archeologists as?
An artifact is defined as?
An object made or modified by humans
Modern archeologists' most fundamental desires are to?
Understand the human past
Historical archeologists in America focus on?
Immigrants who arrived in the last 500 years
The first steps taken in most archeological excavation is to:
Establish a datum and grid pattern system
"Middens" are an archeological term for:
Ancient trash piles
Most of the artifacts that make up the archaeological record are:
Which refers to a kind of artifact, but is differentiated because they cannot be easily removed from an archaeological site?
Pits are by far the most common_____
What do archeologists and paleoanthropologists usually restrict their search to?
What is created when the remnants of human activity are covered or buried by some natural process?.
What allows archeologists to recover a full range of artifacts and other materials while only excavating a small portion of a site?
The "reading" of the archaelogical record is called:
What refers to the relationship between and among artifacts and other materials?
In anthropology, the term "culture" refers to:
All the learned behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, values and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or population
The anthropological attitude that a society's customs and ideas be described objectively and understood in the context of that society's problems and opportunities is called
Cultual relativism
The opinion that one's own way of life is natural or correct and the only true way of being fully human is________.
An extended period during which the anthropologist gather data is called_____.
A society's techniques for acquiring food resources it its:
Subsistence Pattern
Science is:
A method of inquiry
In science, a proposed explanation for some natural phenomenon is called a(n):
To refer tot something as a theory means that it:
Has been well supported by scientific testing
A unique research strategy of anthropologists which involves learning the language and culture of a group by participating in the group's daily activities is called
Participant observation
The systematic study of the material remains of human behavior in the past is conducted by:
The portable material products of former societies are known as:
_____ dating techniques place artifacts and sites in a general chronological order, though the exact date can be often unknown.
The context of an artifact is important for an archaeologist to know because:
Context can reveal valuable information about the artifact's use, age, and relationship to other artifacts and features
Which of the following is not a Hollywood stereotype of an archeologists?
Archaeologists are trained professionals who try to reconstruct human behavior in the past
Although most anthropologists agree on where Native Americans originated, they disagree about:
When the population migrations actually took place
The site of Meadowcroft Rock Shelter has provided evidence to suggest that:
People were living in what is now the eastern US (near Pittsburgh, PA) earlier than the well-dated "Clovis" people lived in North America
The durable aspects of culture such as tools, structures, and art are known as ______.
Material culture
Because it is something someone made, archaeologists like to say that a(n)_____
The purpose of a grid system is _____.
To record the exact location of an artifact accurately, both horizontally and vertically
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
None of the above is incorrect (all the correct)
A place that indicates the presence of human occupants in the past (for example, evidence of a temporary hunting camp or more permanent village) is called an archeological ______.
A system for recording the excavation of artifacts in which the excavation area is divided into squares and the contents of each square are carefully recorded is called _____
A grid system
Archaeologists get clues about how an artifact was used by _____
Analyzing its shape and signs of wear and tear
Which of the following is not true of science?
It always provides the right answer to a question
It is essential that archeologists take abundant, accurate, and detailed field notes during excavations because:
Archaeology destroys data as it is gathered; once a site is excavated it cannot be re-excavated
A test excavation would be most appropriate in which of the following situations?
When trying to determine a site's potential for answering a research question
When archaeologists dig excavation units, they concerned with:
All of the above
- Horizontal provenience
- Vertical provenience
- Keeping the walls of the unit straight and perpindicular
Why do archaeologists use a datum point rather than simply measuring from the ground surface?
The datum point provides a universal reference point that can be used across any archaeological site, allowing archaeologists to easily compare data between excavations
Antiquities act of 1906
the first legislation in the United States designed to protect historic sites ,safeguarded archaeological sites on federal land
Natural preservation act of 1966
extended protection to sites threatened by projects that are funded or regulated by the gov.
Archeological resources protection act
provides criminal and civil penalties for looting or damaging sites on public Native American lands
Native Americans grave protection and repatriation act
requires federal agencies and institutions that receive federal funding to return Native American cultural items to lineal descendants and culturally afflicted Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations
Phase 1
Define site boundaries within a given project area
Phase 2
Test eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places
Phase 3
Assess the effect a project may have on the property