TEXES Science 4-8
Terms in this set (149)
•building blocks of nucleic acids (DNA & RNA)
•serve to carry packets of energy w/in cell (ATP)
•monomer of nucleic acids
•adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, uracil
Which type of fire is each Extinguisher Class designated for?
A- Reg combustables; e.g. paper, wood
B- solvents; e.g. alcohol, acetone
D- Metals, e.g. Na
Define Index Fossils.
What are they used for?
Fossils of short-lived organisms.
Help determine the age of the layer of sediment.
a collapsed and or reforming star. A ball of dust, hydrogen and helium gas, and plasma.
ability of organism to control its body temp
•consists of organisms that are eukaryotic, multi-cellular, absorptive consumers
•have chitin cell wall (not in plants)
•mold, mildew, mushrooms
unicellular prokaryotes w/ no true nucleus
•bacteria, blue-green algae
some are photosynthetic
some are consumers
soft bodied animals
clams, octopus, snails, squid
largest group in animal kingdom
85% of all animal species
crustaceans, spiders, insects
mammalia is a class in chordata
animals with a notochord or backbone
tube feet for moving & feeding
sea urchins & starfish
classification: groups get smaller & more alike
Organization of ecosystems
carbon dioxide + water --> (sunlight energy) --> sugar (chemical energy) + oxygen
when populations in a community change due to events in the environment
(many grass plants die after a long period of no rainfall)
ability to regulate its internal environment
maintain a stable, constant condition
transfer of DNA among different bacteria by viruses
adrenal medulla secrete epinephrine (adrenaline) "fight or flight"
increase: heart rate, respiratory rate, force of contraction of heart, blood flow to muscles, heart, & brain, blood sugar level
decrease: blood flow to viscera, rate of digestion
organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes
activates muscles & plays a role in attention & sensory perception
muscle contraction & heartbeat
block flow of blood from body
have sticky surface & react with air to form scab
made in bone marrow
liquid part of blood in which cells are suspended
60% of bloods is plasma
contains salts called electrolytes, nutrients, & waste
red blood cells
transport oxygen throughout body
white blood cells
help the body defend against infectious diseases
Creates 4 cells, each with half the necessary DNA
resulting chromosome # is half # of parental cells "haploid chromosome #"
the simple duplication of a cell and all of its parts. It duplicates its DNA and the two new cells (daughter cells) have the same pieces and genetic code.
chromosome # is same as parent cell chromosome #
organic molecules consist of ...
carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen
w/significant amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus & often sulfur
carry & position amino acids to/on the ribosomes
copies DNA code & brings it to the ribosomes
organelle of cell that are sites of protein synthesis
subparts of cells
respiration without presence of oxygen
generates lactic acid as a by product
organelle of cell sorts molecules from other parts of cell
organelle of cell that contain digestive enzymes
break down food
located in nucleus of cell
responsible for transcription & assembly of rRNA
roughly spherical in shape
organelle is not surrounded by any type of membrances
membrane bound organelle
muscle cells have lots because use great deal of energy
large surface for cellular respiration
contains genetic material & many enzymes important for cell metabolism
folded & provide large surface area
membrane bound organelle
transportation of proteins (roadway)
smooth ER - no ribosomes
rough ER - ribosomes, abundant in cells make proteins like pancreas - make digestive enzymes
energy source for cells
catalysts - they cause the formation of activated chemical complexes which require a lower activation energy
temp, chemical amounts & pH affect enzyme rate
opening on underside of a leaf allows passage of carbon dioxide, oxygen, & water
membrane bound organelle
storing & synthesizing pigments
make & store yellow & orange pigments
provide color to leaves, flowers, & fruits
where a plant stores food
transports a plants food
water transported up
organelle of cell that holds stored food (water & pigments)
few fossils found
formed by high temps & great pressures
when existing rocks are heated or squeezed
fluid sediments are transformed
sediment collects in layers to form rock
complex process whereby freshly deposited loose grains of sediment are converted into rock. Lithification may occur at the time a sediment is deposited or later
virtually no fossils found
formed from magna
formed from crystallization of molten lava
characterized by texture, composition, & how formed
extrusive - on Earth's surface
intrusive - below Earth's surface
wind driven, classified by temps
pieces of matter in space, composed of silicon, oxygen, rock & metal, esp. nickel and iron.
meteroid that has entered atmosphere, friction causes burning "shooting star"
a meteor that strikes the earth
eras --> periods --> epochs
what usually causes thunderstorms
when fast-moving cold front enters an area in which there's a warm, humid air mass
Big Bang Theory evidence
supported by the microwave background radiation being fairly evenly distributed across space
How does the sun make light?
sun's composed of hydrogen & helium
nuclear fusion - hydrogen is transformed into helium & energy that is released in form of visible light
Earth blocks sunlight from reaching moon
moon in Earth's shadow
Earth moves into moon's shadow, blocking part of Earth from sun's light
Lowest atmospheric level
weather phenomena occurs
the higher you go, the colder it is
second layer of atmosphere (right above troposphere)
ozone located in upper portion
heat capacity per unit mass
resistance of a substance to change in temp
higher spec. heat = harder to change temp
high specific heat = more energy
low specific heat = less energy
not a form of energy
method of transferring energy
amount of heat energy that it takes to raise the temp of object by one degree
can be enhanced or accelerated by catalysts - present in reactants & products
one in which there are fewer reactants (on left) than products (on right)
e.g., water breaks down into hydrogen & oxygen
2 or more substances combine to form a compound
e.g., silver & sulfur yield silver dioxide
2 sets of ions switch bonds
parts of 2 compounds replace each other, switch partners
single replacement reaction
one substance replaces another in its bond, but other does not get a new bond
a free element replaces an element that's part of a compound
multiple reactants combine to form a single product.
exothermic- release energy in the form of heat and light
fewer products that reactants
e.g., H + O = H2O
atoms must gain or lose electrons to form ions
ions are then electrically attracted in oppositely charged pairs
one atom accepts or donates one or more valence electron to another atom
polar covalent bond
electrons are shared unequally, forming a pair of partial charges
covalent bonds when atoms share valence electrons but atoms didn't share the electrons equally
electrons are shared
are always polar when between two non-identicial atoms
a weak chemical bond between an electronegative atom, such as fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen & hydrogen atom bound to another electronegative atom
are responsible for the properties of water & many biological molecules
electrons are shared by two metallic atoms
electrons in metallic bonds may be shared between any of the metal atoms in region
produces substances that have different properties than the original substances
e.g., precipitation: mix 2 clear liquids form white solid particles in beaker
quantities of reactants & products are at a "steady rate" & are no longer shifting, but the reaction may still proceed forward and backward.
The rate of forward reaction must equal the rate of backward reaction.
require heat energy to proceed
ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water
mass of a substance contained per unit of volume
1st law of thermodynamics
energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary physical & chemical processes.
energy changed from one form to another.
2nd law of thermodynamics
More and more energy is wasted during transport and transformation
All processes in isolated system eventually lead to entropy, or increasing disorder
process of heat transfer via solid contact
heat transfer by way of fluid currents
heat transfer via electromagnetic waves (sunlight)
watt is a unit of ...
Electrical potential is measured in ...
the # of electrons per second that flow past a point in a circuit
ohm is a unit of
the bending of light because it hits a material at an angle where in it has a different speed.
light waves interfere with each other to form brighter or dimmer patterns
energy is measured with the same units as...
D = m/v
density = mass/volume
s = d/t
avg. speed = total distance/total time
F = ma
net force = mass x acceleration
w = fd
work = force x distance
energy an object has due to its motion
energy of a moving object
greatest @ bottom of roller coaster hill
stored energy due to an object's position
greatest potential @ top of roller coastal hill
lowest @ bottom of hill
energy stored in matter due to its position relative to other objects
pushing or pulling action that may change motion
for force to move - unbalanced force
more mass means more force
larger rock lands with more force, has more kinetic energy
how do simple machines affect work and force?
reduce amount of input force, but amount of work always remains same
pulley, wedge, lever, inclined plane, wheel & axle
use wheels & rope to move load
changes the direction of pull -->and force to do work
input force is same as the weight using pulley
the transfer of energy to move an object a certain distance
the ability to do work or supply heat
energy measured in ...
force measured in ...
study of the relationship of motion & force
measure of the pull of Earth's gravity on an object
force that gravity exerts on an object
the resistance an object has to a change in its state of motion
more mass, more inertia (harder to move)
Newton's 1st Law
object in motion (or rest) will continue in motion (or rest) unless acted upon by an outside force
Newton's 2nd Law
mass can be considered the ratio of force to acceleration
unbalanced force acting on an object causes the object to accelerate in the direction of force
Newton's 3rd Law
for every force, there's an equal & opposite reaction force
jump - force on ground & ground exerts equal force on you
Mass is ___, while weight is___.
varied by location due to gravity
the amount of matter in an object
periodic table rows are called ____ and elements within each share ____
very few chemical properties.
periodic table columns are called ____ and elements within each share _____
groups or families
similar properties, like reactivity, having to do with their valence electron configurations
alkaline earth metals are located in _____ on the PTOE, and tend to be ____, _____, and have a _____ melting point.
family 2: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra
harder, densier, higher
2 electrons in outer shell (not tightly bound, readily lose)
Alkai Metals are located in _____ on the PTOE, and tend to be ____, _____, and _____ dense than other metals.
They have ________ chemical activity, and ______ valence electron(s).
They have (high/low) electronegativities.
Family 1: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr
SHINY, SOFTER, LESS dense than other metals
THE HIGHEST chemical activity
ONE LOOSELY BOUND valence electron
Transition Metals are located in _____ on the PTOE.
Their characteristics are .....
typical of common metals: very hard, high melting & boiling points, high electrical conductivity
shiny "metallic" appearance
solids @ room temp (except mercury)
high melting point & high densities
thermal & electrical conductors
semimetals: boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium
electronegativity between those of metals & nonmetals
ionization energies, possess some metal & nonmetal characteristics
covalent bonding & ionically
hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphortus, sulfur, selenium
high ionization energies
poor thermal & electrical conductors
gain electrons easily
group 17: class of nonmetals
fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine, ununspetium
combine with metals to make salts
very high electronegativity
7 valence electrons
highly reactive, especially w/ alkali & alkaline
group 18 or O
helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon, ununoctium
fairly nonreactive, complete valence shell
high ionization energies
very low electronegativity
low boiling point
little tendency to gain or lose electrons
How do you find the number of neutrons in any atom by looking at the periodic table of elements?
Atomic Mass - Atomic Number (protons) = neutrons
What can be found by looking at the Atomic Number of an element?
# protons & # of electrons
different number of neutrons, won't change charge of atom since neutral
How do you find the number of electrons in a neutral atom?
For all elements except transistion metals,
Group/Family # = number of electons
How do you find the number of electrons in a positively or negatively charged atom?
Neg. Charge (e.g., Cl^-1): Group # + Charge= # electrons
Pos. Charge (e.g., Na^+3): Group # - Charge= # electrons
electronegativity values of 2 atoms:
-metallic bonds form between 2 metal atoms
-covalent bonds form between 2 non-metal atoms
-non-polar covalent bonds form when the electronegativity values are very similar
-ionic bonds are formed
Coavalent bonds can form between....
2 non-metal atoms
Non-polar covalent bonds form when...
electronegativity values of atoms are very similar
Ionic bonds form when...
electronegativity values of the atoms are different
explanation of observation
uses the principles of capillarity to separate substances
uses percent light absorbance to measure a color change, thus giving qualitative data a quantitative value.
uses electrical charges of molecules to separate them according to size
amount of water vapor in the atmosphere
the temp at which air is holding as much water vapor as it can, it is said to be saturated and condensation can occur
measure of the amount of water vapor that is present compared to the amount that could be held at a specific temp
Cold air mass advances and pushes under a warm air mass, the warm air is forced to rise.
If air is pushed upward quickly enough a narrow band of violent storms can result.
Warm air is advancing into a region of colder air. Warm, less dense air slides up and over the colder, denser air mass. Warm air moves upward, it cools. Water vapor condense & precipitation occurs over a wide area.
warm air mass & cold air mass meet but neither advances. can remain for several days. Precipitation can occur & be heavy since front moves so little
air in a clockwise direction in northern hemp
air sinking moisture cannot rise & condense
dry with few clouds
rises & cools
air reaches dew point, condenses & forms clouds & precipitation
air in counter clockwise direction in northern hemp
What are the phases of a cell's life cycle?