68 terms

Biology Chapter 7 Miller and Levine

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The Cell Theory
1. All living things are made up of cells
2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
3.New cells are produced from existing cells.
How do microscopes work
Use lenses to magnify the image of an object by focusing light or electrons
Prokaryotic Cells
Do not separate genetic material in a nucleus
Eukaryotic Cells
Nucleus separates genetic material from the rest of the cell
Cell
Basic unit of life
Cell membrane
A thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Nucleus
A large membrane enclosed structure that contains genetic material in the form of DNA and controls many of the cell's activities
Cytoplasm
The portion of the cell outside the nucleus.
Organelles
specialized internal structures in the cytoplasm of a cell that carries out specific functions
Vacuole
Large saclike, membrane-enclosed structures that store materials like salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Lysosome
S: Small organelles filled with enzymes.
F: Break down lipids, carbs, and proteins to be used by rest of cell.
Break down organelles which aren't useful anymore.
Cytoskeleton
S: Network of protein filaments
F: Helps cell maintain shape and is involved in movement
Microfilaments
S: Threadlike structures made up of actin protein. Extensive network.
F: Help cells move, support cell. Responsible for cytoplasmic movements.
Microtubules
S:Hollow structures made up of proteins called tubulins.
F: Maintain cell shape, help separate chromosomes in cell division
Centrioles
S: Organelles in animal cells formed from tubulins.
F: Help organize cell division
Ribosome
S: Small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm.
F: Produce protein by following instructions from DNA
Endoplasmic Reticulum
S: Internal membrane system
F: Assembles lipids and proteins
Rough ER
S: Ribosomes found on surface
F: involved in synthesis of Proteins, chemically modify newly made proteins
Smooth ER
S: No ribosomes found on surface
F: Contains collections of enzymes that perform specialized tasks
Golgi Apparatus
S: Flattened membranes
F: Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and materials for storage in cell or release from outside of the cell.
Chloroplast
S: Membrane coated, large stacks of other membranes including chlorophyll
F: Convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in food
Mitochondrion
S: Two membranes
F: convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
Cell Wall
S: Porous barriers that surround the cell membrane
F: Shapes, supports, and protects the cell
Phospholipid Bilayer
Flexible, double layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
Selectively Permeable
A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
Active transport
Requires cell energy
Passive transport
Movement of materials across the membrane without cellular energy
Diffusion
Random movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration due to their kinetic energy
Facilitated Diffusion
Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
Aquaporin
A transport protein that facilitates the diffusion of water
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Isotonic
(used of solutions) having the same or equal osmotic pressure
Hypertonic
A solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than another.
Hypotonic
Having a lower concentration of solute than another solution
Osmotic Pressure
Pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement across a selectively permeable membrane
How to maintain homeostasis
1. Grow
2. Respond to the environment
3.Transform energy
4. Reproduce
Homeostasis
Relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain
Tissue
A group of similar cells that perform the same function.
Organ
A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body.
Organ System
Group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
Receptor
a specific protein whose shape fits that of a specific molecular messenger
carbohydrate
polymer-polysaccharide
monomer-monosaccharide
Lipid
polymer-triglyceride
monomer-glycerol or fatty acids
protein
polymer-polypeptide
monomer-amino acids
nucleic acids
polymer-dna rna
monomer-nucleotide
monomers, polymers, macromolecules, energy, enzymes, cell
order of a pizza shop cell
coccus
spherical prokaryotic
bacillus
rod shaped prokaryotic
spirillum
spiral prokaryotic
pro lack nucleus, have flagellum, simple
both have cell wall, cell membrane, ribosomes, dna, cytoplasm
eu have nucleus, complex organelles
prokaryotic vs eukaryotic
plant have vacuole, chloroplast, cell wall
animal do not have cell wall, large vacuole, but have lysosomes and centrioles,
plant cell vs animal cell
integral proteins
proteins imbedded in lipid bilayer and extend to exterior
peripheral proteins
proteins only on one side of lipid bilayer
cholesterol in cell membrane
lipid located in between the lipid bilayer and it adds support and structure to the membrane
down the concentration gradient
during osmosis and diffusion which way do molecules move across concentration gradient?
up the concentration gradient
during active transport which way do molecules move across the concentration gradient?
hypotonic
inside cell, more solute, less water
outside of cell less solute more water,
water moves into cell causing it to swell!
hypertonic
inside cell, more water, less solute,
outside of cell less water more solute
water moves out of cell causing cell to shrink
isotonic
inside and outside cell = solute and =water
little osmosis occurs to keep equilibrium
isotonic
animal cells need to keep ____________ relationship to keep from bursting through cytolysis
hypotonic
plant cells need to keep _____________ relationship to keep from drying out and shrinking through plasmolysis
plasmolysis
hypertonic solution causes cell membrane to shrink making less osmotic pressure. The cell cannot function correctly when too much water is lost and the cell dies causing the plant to wilt
cytolysis
hypotonic solution causes animal cell membrane to expand and swell and since there is no cell wall to keep it from expanding too much, the cell ruptures and bursts.
head of a phospholipid
made of glycerol(lipid monomer)
polar(slightly charged) and hydrophilic(attract water)
tail of a phosophlipid
made of fatty acids(lipid monomer)
nonpolar(balanced)
hydrophobic(fears water)
glycoprotein
involved in cell to cell recognition carb protein on top of the phospholipid bilayer
glycolipid
involved in cell to cell recognition extend from the lipid bilayer as glycerol chains
size of particle, pore size, mass of molecule, temperature
things that affect diffusion

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