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What are causes of ocean movement?
Oceans are always in constant movement caused by:
*Variations in density
*Wind-that's why beaches are so windy
What are the three general types of water movement?
Each plays a different role in the movement of water in the ocean.
Movements of water that flow horizontally on the surface of the ocean.
*Surface currents that flow towards the equator generally bring cold water
*Surface currents that flow away from the equator generally bring warm water
What energy drives surface currents?
The energy that drives surface ocean currents comes from the wind.
The ___________ is when the Earth's rotation causes surface ocean currents to be deflected.
*In the Northern Hemisphere-objects are deflected to the RIGHT or counter-clockwise
*In the Southern Hemisphere-objects are deflected to the LEFT or clockwise
Wind causing vertical water movements, _______ is the rising of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface water.
What does upwelling bring?
Greater concentrations of dissolved nutrients, such as nitrates and phosphates, to the ocean surface.
Closed system of circulating water
*Winds blowing from east are Trade Winds
*Winds blowing from west are Westerly Winds
What are the five major gyres of the world?
Why is the water moving towards the equator cold?
*It becomes cold when the current moves deeper under the water. Colder water is denser.
*Ocean currents that move TOWARD the equator are cold.
Why is the water moving away from the equator warm?
*It warms up when the current brings it up to the surface. This happens around the equator because of exposure to the sun.
*Ocean currents that move AWAY from the equator are warm.
Why is ocean circulation important?
*Transports heat from the equator to the poles, affecting global temperatures
*Transports nutrients found in deep currents to coastal areas, supporting ecosystems
*Positive economic effect, allows for continuation of fisheries along coast lines
How do ocean currents affect coastal areas?
Coastal areas have a high amount of water vapor in the air
*Summers will be cooler
*Winters will be warmer
How do ocean currents affect inland cities?
In cities, there is less water vapor in the air
*Summers will be very hot
*Winters will be very cold
During the day, the beach will be warmer than the ocean, causing wind to move from the ocean to the land, creating a ______ breeze.
During the night, the ocean will be warmer than the sand, causing wind to move from the land to the ocean, creating a ______ breeze.
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