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During a therapeutic group, a client talks about personal accomplishments in an effort to gain attention. Which group role, assumed by this client, should the nurse identify?
A. The task role of gatekeeper
B. The individual role of recognition seeker
C. The maintenance role of dominator
D. The task role of elaborator
The nurse should evaluate that the client is assuming the individual role of the recognition seeker. Other individual roles include the aggressor, the blocker, the dominator, the help seeker, the monopolizer, and the seducer.
During a therapeutic group, two clients engage in an angry verbal exchange. The nurse leader interrupts the exchange and excuses both of the clients from the group. The nurse has demonstrated which leadership style?
The nurse who excuses clients from the group has demonstrated an autocratic leadership style. An autocratic leadership style may be useful in certain situations that require structure and limit setting. Democratic leaders focus on the members of the group and group-selected goals. Laissez-faire leaders provide no direction to group members.
During a therapeutic group, which nursing action demonstrates a laissez-faire leadership style?
A. The nurse mandates that all group members reveal an embarrassing personal situation.
B. The nurse asks for a show of hands to determine group topic preference.
C. The nurse sits silently as the group members stray from the assigned topic.
D. The nurse shuffles through papers to determine the facility policy on length of group.
The nurse leader who sits silently and allows group members to stray from the assigned topic is demonstrating a laissez-faire leadership style. This style allows group members to do as they please with no direction from the leader. Group members often become frustrated and confused in reaction to a laissez-faire leadership style.
During a community meeting, a nurse encourages clients to present unit problems and discuss possible solutions. Which type of leadership style is the nurse demonstrating?
The nurse who encourages clients to present problems and discuss solutions is demonstrating a democratic leadership style. Democratic leaders share information with group members and promote decision making by the members of the group. The leader provides guidance and expertise as needed.
Which situation should a nurse identify as an example of an autocratic leadership style?
A. The president of Sigma Theta Tau assigns members to committees to research problems.
B. Without faculty input, the dean mandates that all course content be delivered via the Internet.
C. During a community meeting, a nurse listens as clients generate solutions.
D. The student nurses' association advertises for candidates for president.
The nurse should identify that mandating decisions without consulting the group is considered an autocratic leadership style. Autocratic leadership increases productivity but often reduces morale and motivation due to lack of member input and creativity.
A single, pregnant teenager in a parenting class discloses her ambivalence toward the pregnancy and the subsequent guilt that these thoughts generate. A mother of three admits to having felt that way herself. Which of Yalom's curative group factors does this illustrate?
A. Imparting of information
B. Instillation of hope
The scenario is an example of the curative group factor of universality. Universality occurs when individuals realize that they are not alone in the problems, thoughts, and feelings they are experiencing. This realization reduces anxiety by the support and understanding of others.
A man diagnosed with alcohol dependence experiences his first relapse. During his AA meeting, another group member states, "I relapsed three times, but now have been sober for 15 years." Which of Yalom's curative group factors does this illustrate?
A. Imparting of information
B. Instillation of hope
This scenario is an example of the curative group factor of instillation of hope. This occurs when members observe the progress of others in the group with similar problems and begin to believe that personal problems can also be resolved.
During a group discussion, members freely interact with each other. Which member statement is an example of Yalom's curative group factor of imparting information?
A. "I found a Web site explaining the different types of brain tumors and their treatment."
B. "My brother also had a brain tumor and now is completely cured."
C. "I understand your fear and will be by your side during this time."
D. "My mother was also diagnosed with cancer of the brain."
Yalom's curative group factor of imparting information involves sharing knowledge gained through formal instruction as well as by the sharing of advice and suggestions by other group members.
Prayer group members at a local Baptist church are meeting with a poor, homeless family they are supporting. Which member statement is an example of Yalom's curative group factor of altruism?
A. "I'll give you the name of a friend that rents inexpensive rooms."
B. "The last time we helped a family, they got back on their feet and prospered."
C. "I can give you all of my baby clothes for your little one."
D. "I can appreciate your situation. I had to declare bankruptcy last year."
Yalom's curative group factor of altruism occurs when group members provide assistance and support to each other creating a positive self-image and promoting self-growth. Individuals increase self-esteem through mutual caring and concern.
During an inpatient educational group, a client shouts out, "This information is worthless. Nothing you have said can help me." These statements indicate to the nurse leader that the client is assuming which group role?
A. The group role of aggressor
B. The group role of initiator
C. The group role of gatekeeper
D. The group role of blocker
The nurse should identify that the client is assuming the group role of the aggressor. The aggressor expresses negativism and hostility toward others in the group or to the group leader and may use sarcasm in an effort to degrade the status of others.
A nurse believes that the members of a parenting group are in the initial, or orientation, phase of group development. Which group behaviors would support this assumption?
A. The group members manage conflict within the group.
B. The group members use denial as part of the grief response.
C. The group members compliment the leader and compete for the role of recorder.
D. The group members initially trust one another and the leader.
The nurse should anticipate that members in the initial, or orientation, phase of group development often compliment the leader and compete for the role of recorder. Members in this phase have not yet established trust and have a fear of not being accepted. Power struggles may occur as members compete for their position in the group.
During a group session, which client statement demonstrates that the group has progressed to the middle, or working, phase of group development?
A. "It's hard for me to tell my story when I'm not sure about the reactions of others."
B. "I think Joe's Antabuse suggestion is a good one and might work for me."
C. "My situation is very complex, and I need professional, not peer, advice."
D. "I am really upset that you expect me to solve my own problems."
The nurse should determine that group members have progressed to the working phase of group development when members begin to look to each other instead of to the leader for guidance. Group members in the working phase begin to accept criticism from each other and then use it constructively to foster change.
Which group leader activity should a nurse identify as being most effective in the final, or termination, phase of group development?
A. The group leader establishes the rules that will govern the group after discharge.
B. The group leader encourages members to rely on each other for problem solving.
C. The group leader presents and discusses the concept of group termination.
D. The group leader helps the members to process feelings of loss.
The most effective intervention in the final, or termination, phase of group development would be for the group leader to help the members to process feelings of loss. The leader should encourage the members to review the goals and discuss outcomes, reminisce about what has occurred, and encourage members to provide feedback to each other about progress.
A nursing instructor is teaching students about self-help groups like Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Which student statement indicates that learning has occurred?
A. "There is little research to support AA's effectiveness."
B. "Self-help groups used to be the treatment of choice, but their popularity is waning."
C. "These groups have no external regulation, so clients need to be cautious."
D. "Members themselves run the group, with leadership usually rotating among the members."
The student indicates an understanding of self-help groups when stating, "Members themselves run the group, with leadership usually rotating among the members." Nurses may or may not be involved in self-help groups. These groups allow members to talk about feelings and reduce feelings of isolation while receiving support from others undergoing similar experiences.
The nurse should utilize which group function to help an extremely withdrawn, paranoid client increase feelings of security?
The nurse should identify that the group function of support would help an extremely withdrawn, paranoid client increase feelings of security. Support assists group members in gaining a feeling of security from group involvement.
When planning group therapy, a nurse should identify which configuration as most optimal for a therapeutic group?
A. Open-ended membership; circle of chairs; group size of 5 to 10 members
B. Open-ended membership; chairs around a table; group size of 10 to 15 members
C. Closed membership; circle of chairs; group size of 5 to 10 members
D. Closed membership; chairs around a table; group size of 10 to 15 members
The nurse should identify that the most optimal conditions for a therapeutic group are when the membership is closed and the group size is between 5 and 10 members who are arranged in a circle of chairs. The focus of therapeutic groups is on relationships within the group and the interactions among group members.
During the sixth week of a 10-week parenting skills group, a nurse observes as several members get into a heated dispute about spanking. As a group, they decide to create a pros-and-cons poster on the use of physical discipline. At this time, what is the role of the group leader?
A. To referee the debate
B. To adamantly oppose physical discipline measures
C. To redirect the group to a less controversial topic
D. To encourage the group to solve the problem collectively
The role of the group leader is to encourage the group to solve the problem collectively. A democratic leadership style supports members in their participation and problem solving. Members are encouraged to cooperatively solve issues that relate to the group.
A 10-week, prenuptial counseling group composed of five couples is terminating. At the last group meeting, a nurse notices that the two most faithful and participative couples are absent. When considering concepts of group development, what might explain this behavior?
A. They are experiencing problems with termination, leading to feelings of abandonment.
B. They did not think any new material would be covered at the last session.
C. They were angry with the leader for not extending the length of the group.
D. They were bored with the material covered in the group.
The nurse should determine that the clients' absence from the final group meeting may indicate that they are experiencing problems with termination. The termination phase of group development may elicit feelings of abandonment and anger. Successful termination may help members develop skills to cope with future unrelated losses.
An experienced psychiatric registered nurse has taken a new position leading groups in a day treatment program. Without further education, which group is this nurse most qualified to lead?
A. A psychodrama group
B. A psychotherapy group
C. A parenting group
D. A family therapy group
A psychiatric registered nurse is qualified to lead a parenting group. A parenting group can be classified as either a teaching group or therapeutic group. Psychodrama, psychotherapy, and family therapy are forms of group therapy that must be facilitated by qualified leaders who generally have advanced degrees in psychology, social work, nursing, or medicine.
A nursing instructor is teaching about psychodrama, a specialized type of therapeutic group. Which student statement indicates that further teaching is necessary?
A. "Psychodrama provides a safe setting in which to discuss painful issues."
B. "In psychodrama, the client is the protagonist."
C. "In psychodrama, the client observes actor interactions from the audience."
D. "Psychodrama facilitates resolution of interpersonal conflicts."
The nurse should educate the student that in psychodrama the client plays the role of himself or herself in a life-situation scenario and is called the protagonist. During psychodrama, the client does not observe interactions from the audience. Other group members perform the role of the audience and discuss the situation they have observed, offer feedback, and express their feelings. Leaders of psychodrama must have specialized training to become a psychodramatist.
Which of the following observed client behaviors would lead a nurse to evaluate a member as assuming a maintenance group role? (Select all that apply.)
A. A client decreases conflict within the group by encouraging compromise.
B. A client offers recognition and acceptance of others.
C. A client outlines the task at hand and proposes solutions.
D. A client listens attentively to group interaction.
E. A client uses the group to gain sympathy from others.
ANS: A, B, D
The nurse should identify clients who decrease conflict within the group, offer recognition and acceptance of others, and listen attentively to group interaction as assuming a maintenance group role. There are member roles within each group. Maintenance roles include the compromiser, the encourager, the follower, the gatekeeper, and the harmonizer.
Which of the following behavioral skills should a nurse implement when leading a group that is functioning in the orientation phase of group development? (Select all that apply.)
A. Encouraging members to provide feedback to each other about individual progress
B. Ensuring that group rules do not interfere with goal fulfillment
C. Working with group members to establish rules that will govern the group
D. Emphasizing the need for and importance of confidentiality within the group
E. Helping the members to resolve conflicts and foster cohesiveness within the group
ANS: B, C, D
During the orientation phase of group development, the nurse leader should work together with members to establish rules that will effectively govern the group. The leader should ensure that group rules do not interfere with goal fulfillment and establish the need for and importance of confidentiality within the group. Members need to establish trust and cohesion to move into the working phase of group development.
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