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Terms in this set (147)
Which of these provides evidence of the common ancestry of all life?
Universality of the genetic code
Which listing correctly indicates a sequence of increasing biological organization?
atom, molecule, organelle, cell
Which of the following statements is/are true about prokaryotes?
they are single celled(unicellular), they do not have a nuclear membrane, prokaryotic organisms are found in the domains Archaea or Bacteria (e. a, b, and c)
A hypothesis is tested by:
Which of these is required for natural selection to occur?
individual variation, unequal reproductive success, inheritance (d. all of these)
About twenty-five of the ninety-two natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which six of these twenty-five elements make up approximately 95% of living matter?
carbon, oxygen, phosphorous, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur (CHNOPS)
If an atom has a charge of -2, which of the following must be true?
It has two more electrons than it does protons
An atom's atomic mass is best described as the mass of
protons and neutrons it contains
An isotope of an element has the same number of _______ but differs in the number of ______.
Water molecules are attracted to one another by_______
If an element contains 6 electrons, how many electrons will be placed in the 2nd valence shell?
When the atoms involved in a covalent bond have the same electronegativity, what type of bond results?
a non polar covalent bond
Hydrophilic molecules tend to be_____?
Which of the following statements is true about buffer solutions?
They maintain a relatively constant pH when either acids or bases are added to them
The lower the pH in a solution...
the higher the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration, the more acidic the solution (d. b and c)
Plants are able to transport water from the soil, into its roots, and up to its leaves due to which life sustaining property of water?
water's cohesive behavior
Which is NOT one of the properties of water?
the frozen form is more dense than the liquid form
A costal climate is moderated primarily by which of the following properties of water? Water
has a high specific heat
The complexity and variety of organic molecules is due to ______.
the chemical versatility of carbon atoms
A single carbon atom (atomic number 6) can form a maximum of ________ covalent bond(s).
Which of the following alternatives is/are true about organic molecules
they contain carbon and hydrogen, they are present in living things (d. a and b)
Which of the following statements is False? Saturated fats________.
have many double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids
Research indicates that ibuprofen, a drug used to relieve inflammation and pain, is a mixture of two enantiomers; that is, molecules that________.
are mirror images of each other
A fat molecule is composed of
fatty acids and glycerol
Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose molecule joined to one galactose molecule. How is lactose classified?
as a disaccharide
How do phospholipids interact with water molecules?
The polar heads interact with water; the non polar tails do not
The type of reaction that synthesizes polymers is called a ______ reaction. This type of reaction ______ energy.
Which of the following is a function of a steroid?
Starch and cellulose ______
are both polymers of glucose
What component of amino acid structure varies among different amino acids?
the components of the side chain (R-group)
What are the basic structures that make up a nucleotide?
sugar, phosphare, and nitrogen-containing base
When nucleotides polymerize to form a nucleic acid _____.
a covalent bond forms between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of a second
What is the term used for a protein molecule that assists in the proper folding of other proteins?
A protein's function is primarily dependent on its ______.
What type of microscope would be best for studying surfaces of cells in high resolution?
scanning electron microscope
Which of the following cells contain a plasma membrane?
animal cells, plant cells, and bacterial cells
Which of the following structures is present in a prokaryotic cell?
Why is a large surface area to volume ration needed for cells to function properly?
adequate surface area (plasma membrane) is needed to furnish nutrients to and expel wastes from the volume (cytoplasm)
Select the cellular structure that can be found in both plant and animal cells.
Where are ribosomes located?
on the rough endoplasmic reticulum and in the cytoplasm
Chloroplasts and mitochondria share something with the nucleus that the other organelles do not. What is this shared characteristic?
they are the only organelles that contain DNA
Without a cytoskeleton, eukaryotic cells would NOT
have an efficient way to transport materials from one organelle to another
How is DNA linked to the production of proteins?
DNA holds the instructions for the cells on how to make proteins
Peroxisomes are specialized organelles found in both plants and animals whose reactions produce ______ as a byproduct
Substances are often packages into small ______ for transport, either through the membrane or throughout the interior of the cell.``
The long extension of a cell that can propel a cell forward by whipping back and forth (such as human sperm) is called a ______.
Cilia and flagella extend from a ______ constructed of microtubules that anchors them to the cell.
According to the fluid-mosaic model, ______ are partially or wholly embedded in a fluid phospholipid bilayer.
The inholdings of the inner membranes of mitochondria provide an increase in surface area and are important in ATP production during cellular respiration. Name these structures.
Which would most likely pass unaided through a plasma membrane?
something small and non polar, such as oxygen gas
The "fingerprint" of the cell is made up of ______ and is involved in cell to cell recognition.
glycoproteins and glycolipids
A ______ is composed of a protein and carbohydrate (sugar).
What is the main role of membrane proteins?
Regulate the passage of materials in and out of the cell
Unsaturated fatty acids in the cellular membrane
will increase the fluidity of the membrane
Which of the following is a type of local signaling occurs in the nervous system?
Relaying a message from a receptor protein to a molecule that performs a specific function within a cell is called ______.
In synaptic signaling, neurotransmitters are released and recognized by receptors in the membrane of the target cell. In this type of signaling which type of molecule is acting as the ligand?
is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher connection to a region of lower concentration
Osmosis is the movement of ______ across a selectively permeable membrane.
Which of the following allows water to move much faster across cell membranes?
The difference between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis is that ______.
pinocytosis is nonselective in the molecules it brings into the cell, whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis offers more selectivity
Which form of transport requires the expenditure of energy?
What is the definition of endocytosis?
it is the transport of large molecules into the cell
Which of the following membrane activities requires energy from ATP?
movement of Na+ ions against their concentration gradient
The act of a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is ______.
The sodium-potassium pump is called an electrogenic pump because it ______.
contributes to the membrane potential
Which process is responsible for moving cellular wastes across the cell membrane?
Which of the following is an example of potential energy?
a big piece of chocolate cake
When chemical, transport, or mechanical work is done by an organism, what happens to the heat generated?
it is lost to the environment
Which of the following choices correctly describes the reaction below: A-B --> A + B + energy
In competitive inhibition:
the substrate and the inhibitor compete for the active site
The region of an enzyme to which a substrate binds is called the ______ site.
______ pathways require energy and are important for cell maintenance, growth, and repair.
Enzymes speed up a chemical reaction by:
Lowering the activation energy
Humans require vitamins in their diets because these nutrients
act as coenzymes
The mechanism in which the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an earlier step in the pathway is most precisely described as ______.
Reactions which require an input of energy ______.
What happens to the ATP molecule after it has been used to do work?
It loses a phosphate group and is converted to ADP
Respiration is called aerobic because ______.
it requires oxygen
Where in the cell does glycolysis occur?
cytosol (cytoplasm of the cell)
Which process produces both NADH and FADH2?
the citric acid cycle
Substrate-level phosphorylation of ATP occurs ______.
in both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
The citric acid cycle of reactions takes place in the ______ of mitochondria.
Aerobic cellular respiration generates about ______ ATP from one molecule of glucose.
Identify the stage of cellular respiration when glucose is split into two molecules of pyretic acid.
During cellular respiration, ______ produces most of the carbon dioxide that we exhale.
the citric acid cycle
Which stage of cellular respiration requires oxygen that you breathe?
the electron transport chain (oxidative phosphorylation)
Fermentation in plants produces ______ as a byproduct.
In cellular reparation, the electron transport chain is located in the ______.
Through beta-oxidation, fats are converted to acetyl-CoAs. The further respiration of these acetyl-CoAs typically bypasses which parts of normal aerobic cellular respiration?
glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation
Explain how molecules other than glucose can be used as energy sources.
they are modified first and then enter the same metabolic pathway as glucose
Lactate, the precursor of lactic acid
can be used as fuel by mitochondria in muscle cells
In cellular respiration, the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is ______.
Identify the principal role of photosynthesis.
to convert solar energy into the chemical energy of sugars.
Why are plants green?
they reflect green wavelengths of light and absorb blue and red light
Photosynthesis utilizes ______.
only visible light
What name is given to a discrete particle of light?
Which of the major pigments in plants participates directly in the light reactions?
The oxygen given off by photosynthesis come from ______.
the oxidation of water (H2O)
What is the role of light in photosynthesis?
It energizes electrons
Which correctly describes the Calvin cycle reactions?
carbon dioxide (CO2) is reduced and fixed into a carbohydrate (sugar)
The last stage of one complete turn of the Calvin cycle involves ______.
regeneration of RuBP
What is responsible for the yellow-orange coloration of leaves in the fall?
In the Calvin cycle, CO2 fixation occurs when CO2 combines with ______.
ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP)
Where do the molecules used as the inputs of the Calvin cycles (ATP and NADPH) come from?
They come from the light reactions
The Calvin cycle occurs in the ______.
In photosynthesis, the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is ______.
What is the final result of mitosis?
genetically identical 2n somatic cells
The mitotic spindle is a micro tubular structure that is involved in ______.
separation of sister chromatids
During which phase of the cell cycle are the chromosomes duplicated?
The first gap in the cell cycle (G1) corresponds to ______.
normal growth and cell function
Which of the following lists includes the phases of mitosis in the correct sequence?
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase (PMAT)
Metaphase is characterized by ______.
aligning of chromosomes on the equator
Prokaryotes primarily reproduce ______.
by binary fission
Which of the following is released by platelets in the vicinity of an injury?
Cancer cells require many nutrients, which are supplied by blood vessels. The growth of new blood vessels to cancerous tissue is called.
Which of the following is a protein maintained at steady levels throughout the cell cycle that requires cyclin to become active?
Which of the following triggers the cell's passage past the G2 checkpoint into the M phase (mitosis)?
A research team began a study of a cultured cell line. Their preliminary observations showed them that the cell line did not exhibit either density-dependent inhibition or anchorage dependence. What could the conclude right away?
The cells show characteristics of cancer cells
Signal protein ______ stops the cell cycle at G1 when DNA is damaged.
Homologous chromosomes ______.
carry information for the same traits
The haploid stage of a plant is called a ______.
If a sperm cell contains 6 chromosomes, it comes from an animal that has _____ chromosomes in its somatic cells.
Which of the following events occurs during Prophase I of meiosis but does not occur during Prophase of mitosis?
Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis?
homologous chromosomes pair up
What specifically separates during the first division of meiosis?
What specifically separates during the second division of meiosis?
A fragment of a chromosome has moved to a non-homologous chromosome. This is called ______.
How is genetic variability accomplished during sexual reproduction?
crossing over, independent assortment, random fertilization of male and female gametes (d. all of the above)
What leads to an individual having too many or two few chromosomes?
Down Syndrome is an example of ______.
What is the name of the syndrome that produces the XXY combination of sex chromosomes?
Is it possible for a person with both and X and Y chromosome to be female?
Yes. A deletion of the SRY gene on the short arm of the Y chromosome prevents the development of male genitals and gonads
What are alleles?
alternative forms of a gene for a single trait, such as blue eyes or brown eyes
Define Mendel's law of independent assortment.
The inheritance of one character has no effect on the inheritance of another character
When i say a flower is "purple" what have I described?
If a pea plant shows a dominant phenotype.
the genotype may be TT or Tt.
A man with widow's peak (dominant) who can curl his tongue (dominant) has a child who has a straight hairline and cannot curl the lounge. What is the father's genotype? The allele that produces Widow's peak is (W), and the allele for curling the tongue is (T).
A testcross involves an individual exhibiting the dominant phenotype but an unknown genotype being crossed with an individual that has a(n) ______ genotype.
In humans, the presence of absence of dimples is a trait controlled by a single gene. What is the genotype of and individual who is heterozygous for dimples?
Which of the following describes the ability of a single allele to have multiple phenotypic effects?
In certain plants, tall is dominant to short. If a heterozygous plant is crossed with a homozygous tall plant, what is the probability that the offspring will be short?
Which of the following provides an example of epistasis?
In rabbits and many other mammals, one genotype (ee) prevents any fur color form developing
Which of the following crosses would always result in offspring that only display dominant phenotype?
TTxtt and TTxTT (e. A and C)
Which of the following is an example of polygenic inheritance?
skin pigmentation in humans
Two pink flowers produce red, white, and pink flower offspring. What is this pattern of inheritance called?
Recessive disorders related to genes found of the X chromosome but not on the Y are more commonly expressed in ______.
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