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Psychology 102 (Chapter 7)

Psychology and Life (Second Edition) textbook
STUDY
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Learning
A process based on experience that results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or behavioral potential
Learning-Performance Distinction
The distinction between what has been learned and what has been portrayed through overt behaviors
Habituation
A decrease in a behavioral response when a stimulus is presented repeatedly (You stop loving a song after hearing it on the radio everyday)
Sensitization
The behavioral response to stimuli opposite to that seen with habituation; you're response becomes stronger rather then weaker
introspection
Peoples view of their own thoughts, feelings and sensations
Behavior analysis
The area of psychology that focuses on environmental determinants of learning and behavior
Classical conditioning
conditioning that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that evokes a reflex
Reflex
An unlearned response elicited by specific stimuli that have biological relevance for an organism
Unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response in the absence of learning
Unconditioned response
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
Conditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
Conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
Acquisition
The stage in classical conditioning during which the conditioned response is first elicited by the conditioned stimulus
Extinction
In conditioning, the weakening of a conditioned association in the absence of a reinforcer or unconditioned stimulus
spontaneous recovery
The reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a rest period
Stimulus generalization
Process by which a conditioned response becomes associated with a stimulus that is similar but not identical to the original conditioned stimulus
Stimulus discrimination
Process by which an organism learns to respond only to a specific stimulus and not to other stimuli
The law of effect
A basic law that states the power of a stimulus that evokes a response will be increased when the response is followed with reward
Operant conditioning
A form of conditioning that observes the increase or decrease in certain behaviors based on consequences
Operant
Skinner's term for an actively emitted (or voluntary) behavior that operates on the environment to produce consequences
Reinforcer
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Positive reinforcement
A behavior is followed with something appetitive (pleasant) stimulus, making it more likely that behavior will increase
Negative reinforcement
increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing an aversive stimulus when the response occurs
Operant extinction
the weakening and eventual disappearance of a response because it is no longer reinforced
Punisher
any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
Positive punisher
Occurs when something unpleasant occurs after behavior, making it less likely it will happen again
Negative punisher
Occurs when something pleasant is removed after behavior, making it less likely it will happen again
Discriminative stimuli
When an organism learns that, in the presence of some stimuli but not others, they can have some effect on the environment (When the light is green we go, when the light is red we stop or face consequences)
Primary reinforcers
reinforcers that meet an organism's basic needs, such as food and water
Conditioned reinforcers
stimuli that acquire their reinforcing power through their association with primary reinforcers
Partial reinforcement effect
a phenomenon in which behaviors learned under a partial reinforcement schedule are more difficult to extinguish than behaviors learned on a continuous reinforcement schedule
Fixed-ratio
A schedule for reinforcement after a set amount of responses
Varying-ratio
A schedule for reinforcement after a varying amount of responses
Fixed-interval
A schedule for reinforcement after a set amount of time
Varying-interval
A schedule for reinforcement after varying amount of time
Shaping
A behavioral method that reinforces responses that successively approximate and ultimately match the desired response.
Instinctual drift
The tendency for learned behavior to drift toward instinctual behavior over time
Taste-aversion learning
A form of learning in which an organism learns to avoid a taste after just one pairing of that taste with illness.
Comparative cognition
The study of the development of cognitive abilities across species and the continuity of abilities from nonhuman to human animals
Cognitive map
A mental representation of physical space