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Which of the following changes listed in the textbook as a result of brain aging?

reaction time lengthens.

As the former captain of the football team, John organized a game for his 25th high-school class reunion. Afterward, all the players complained that they were aching, and that they were much stronger and faster in high school. What is the nature of their biosocial changes?

Their fibers for Type I muscles have been reduced by about 25% since highschool.

Which of the following changes is listed in the textbook as a result of the brain aging?

Reaction time lengthens

Harry is 65 years old and can hear well enough to understand a whisper spoken three feet away. In a sample of 65-year-old men, Harry would be:

about average

Which of the following statements about hormone replacement therapy is true?

Researchers now believe that the studies demonstrating its positive effects were invalid

To increase her sexual desire following menopause, Janie began

taking testosterone supplements

The term male menopause is sometimes used to refer to

a dip in testosterone in response to anxiety or sexual inactivity.

A woman in the US today is more likely to die from which type of cancer?


researchers on obesity agree that in middle age

metabolism slows down by a third

what is one crucial factor for success when trying to break a habit

social support

If a person is experiencing several stressors and the person's organs reserve is depleted the physiological toll of those stressors can

speed up the heart

In which coping style do people try to attack a stressor in some way?

problem focused

in which coping style do people try to change their emotion about a stressor

emotion focused

When dealing with stressors, men tend to be____ in their style, while women tend to be ____.

problem focused, emotion focused.

The tens of millions of Americans who live in neglected neighborhoods and who are of low socioeconomic status:

tend to live as much as 30 years less than the 10 million healthiest Americans.

When Schaie conducted cross-sectional research comparing the cognitive abilities of adults of different ages, he found:

a gradual decline in intellectual ability with age

Which of the following primary abilities declines the earliest in adulthood?

number ability

Who has the best chance of maintaining intellectual abilities into late adulthood?

Martin, who has a college education, a happy marriage, and a good retirement plan

The ability that involves crystallized intelligence to the greatest extent is:

interpreting a chemical formula.

Which of the following statements about changes in intelligence is true?

Age-related declines are first noted for skills that require speed of response

Analytic intelligence is particularly valued in:

emerging adulthood.

When students take multiple-choice exams, they are using the form of intelligence that Sternberg calls:


Creative intelligence requires ______ thinking


Betty is a retired registered nurse who fills in at the local hospital when the staff is in need of nurses. She is frequently called in without advance notice and must take over without any time to get oriented. Betty must rely on intelligence that Sternberg calls


What did Baltes and Baltes call the capacity of adults to use their intellectual strengths to compensate for declining capacities?

selective optimization with compensation

Experts tend to be intuitive, automatic, ______, and ______ in their thinking.

strategic; flexible

According to many developmentalists, the key to successful aging is:

the capacity to accommodate to changes over time.

Data from the Seattle Longitudinal Study demonstrated that as adults grow older, their intellectual functioning increases if they:

do paid work that is intellectually challenging.

The first visible signs of senescence may be observed in the


Most developmental theorists today believe that:

stages of adult development are not entirely orderly and predictable

Which statement most accurately depicts researchers' current views on the midlife crisis?

Believing in its existence may help middle-aged adults cope with the changes that occur

Matilda is usually a kind, helpful, and easygoing person. She is high on which of the Big Five traits?


Davetta is very organized and tends to conform easily. She is high on which of the Big Five traits?


A particular lifestyle and social context that evokes and reinforces personality traits is called an

ecological niche

Chris is high in extroversion and therefore will probably

prefer to work with people and have a busy social life

Which of the following personality traits tends to increase with age?


The group of people who move through life with an individual providing protection and encouragement is their:

social convoy.

As adults age, their friendships tend to


Typically, the relationship between middle-aged adults and their parents

improves with age

In which country did a six-nation study find the highest rates of affection between adults and their aging parents?


Jeremy was reared in several foster homes and never knew his parents. When he started working with Kent, he became close to Kent's family to the point where they fondly referred to him as "our new-found son." Jeremy is the family's

fictive kin

Which of the following conditions affects the long-term quality of a marriage?

the partners' personalities

When in a relationship is domestic violence most likely to appear?

early in a relationship

Manuel and Rosa have been married for nearly 30 years. Their youngest child left home six months ago. The quality of their marriage should:

improve since they have more time to spend together.

Hal and Darcy endured many stressful years in their marriage resulting in much unhappiness. Over time, their marriage rebounded and improved. Research indicates that:

learning to understand and forgive each other promotes happiness.

Although couples typically divorce because some aspects of the marriage have become difficult to endure, divorce has other impacts. What is one of the impacts that divorce has on couples?

severs friendships

Research finds that women typically suffer from divorce more than men do, but what is one impact of divorce on aging fathers?

increases loneliness

Research indicates that remarried people:

have a greater chance of divorce than do people in first marriages

Aunt Emily is the family's kinkeeper. This means that she assumes responsibility for:

gathering the family for holidays, sending birthday reminders, and disseminating family communications.

The notion of the sandwich generation

is not very accurate.

Which of the following conditions do older employees tend to display?

less absenteeism

During young adulthood, all body systems—including the digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and sexual-reproductive systems—function:


Larry is 30 years old and will play tennis with 18-year-old Chris. They are equally matched in ability. Larry will probably

need more rest afterward to allow bodily functions to return to normal

The term "organ reserve" refers to:

the extra capacity available to an organ when subjected to stress

Fifty-year-olds can expect to retain ______ percent of the muscle strength they had at age 20.


The most common time for males and females to have a baby is during

young adulthood.

The maternal age range of peak fertility and peak newborn survival has always been:

18-25 years.

Average well-being increases in emerging adulthood, as does the incidence of:


The diathesis-stress model of mental illness proposes that a combination of ______ and ______ produces mental disorders.

genetic vulnerability; environmental stresses

Symptoms of depression do include:

trouble concentrating and sleeping.

___________ disorders include panic attacks, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.


Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which a person becomes overwhelmed by:

All of the answers are correct

Two factors that tend to maintain good exercise habits beyond emerging adulthood include:

friendship and communities designed for activity.

A person's set point is affected by:

age, genes, diet, hormones, and exercise

Derrick delivers messages on his bike all over the busy, hilly streets of downtown San Francisco. He engages in


Using a drug in a quantity or a manner that harms physical, cognitive, or psychosocial well-being is called drug:


______ are the biggest substance abusers, but their illegal drug use drops much faster than their cigarette smoking or binge drinking.

Emerging adults

A large university is attempting to reduce student alcohol and nicotine use. A survey was distributed to all students, and the results were published in the student newspaper. Fewer students than anticipated drank and smoked, much to many students' surprise. The university conducted this research using the:

social norms approach.

The focus of postformal thought, the possible fifth stage of cognition, is:

problem finding

Most emerging adults struggle with ______; however, adults gradually master it as their cognition matures.

time management

Compared to formal operational thinking, postformal thought is characterized by:


A common logical error of emerging adults is delay discounting, the tendency to:

undervalue events in the future.

A research study of people aged 13-45 found that logical skills improved from ______ to ______, then stayed steady.

adolescence; emerging adulthood

Emily's parents were becoming exasperated. She just changed majors for the third time since her freshman year in college. As a junior, she would have additional prerequisite credits to complete to prepare for the new major. Emily is demonstrating:

cognitive flexibility

William arrived at a large, culturally diverse university from a small isolated town, excited to start his college education. Quickly, though, he became fearful and suspicious of students different than himself. William needs to:

use cognitive flexibility to counter the stereotypes he has learned.

The study in which adults were asked to suggest solutions to 15 real-life problems demonstrated that:

familiarity with situations enabled adults to be more flexible.

Jeff is a fun-loving, intelligent, responsible teenager who likes to dye his hair different colors. However, he is concerned that other people might construe his hair color as reflection of low achievement. His concern is over:

stereotype threat.

Alicia is a chemical engineer who has endured sexism throughout her career. Her 14-year-old daughter would like also to go into chemical engineering. Alicia supports her daughter's goals but worries that she, too, will be subjected to ______ as Alicia had been.

stereotype threat

The adult thinking process in which every idea implies an opposite idea, and both the idea and its opposite can be integrated into a synthesis is referred to as:

dialectical thinking.

In an essay, Michelle begins by writing that knowing the truth sets people free. In her next paragraph, she opposes this idea with the idea that knowing the truth often involves learning about limitations and constraints on freedom. In her third paragraph, Michelle integrates these two perspectives. Michelle's essay best demonstrates:

dialectical thinking.

Carol Gilligan would probably say that choices about which of the following aspects of life are most likely to advance moral thinking?

child rearing

Four-year-old Davis believes that God gave his little brother to his mother because she stayed overnight at the hospital. Davis is at the ______ stage of religious faith.


The stage of faith that is based on God rewarding those who follow His laws punishing other is referred to as:

mythic-literal faith

Favoring what feels right over what makes intellectual sense is typical of___ faith

synthetic conventional

The type of faith in which people can accept contradictions and incorporate both powerful unconscious ideas and rational, conscious values is

conjunctive faith

According to Fowler, Mother Teresa, MLK and Ghandi exhibited which stage of faith?


Identify the true statement about developmentists' view of faith and religion

it progresses from a self centered prospective to a many sided altruistic view

According to Fowler's religious stages, faith, like other aspects of cognition, progresses from a(n) ___ view of life to a (n) ___ view

simple, self centered, one sided, complex, unselfish

The first phase of college students' thinking is

believing in the existence of clear and perfect truths

Perry found that over the four years of their college careers, students:

progress through nine levels of complexity in their thinking

Which of the following statements about cohort effects regarding the effect of college on cognitive development is true?

the increased diversity of the college atmosphere probably helps to enhance cognitive development

Colleges that make use of their diversity by including___ help students stretch their understanding not only of differences and similarities among people but also of themselves.

all of the answers are correct

Research has revealed that college education leads students to become

more tolerant of differing religions and political views.

Which group showed the greatest gains in their well being after highschool?

college students

intimacy is best defined as


jessica is 21 years old. how is her circle of friends likely to differ from that of her mother when she was jessica's age?

Jessica's circle of friends is more likely to include both males and females

compared to those of women, friendship between men are

less emotional

friendships between men are less intimate than those between women because

men are more hesitant to express their vulnerabilities

which of the following is a particular advantage of cross sex friendships

oppurtunity to learn about the opposite sex

Which of the following statements about the qualities young adults seek from a romantic partner is true?

culture greatly affects the qualities sought by individuals

According to Sternberg, when commitment, passion, and intimacy are all present, the form of love is ___


Jim and Margaret have been married for 35 years. They feel no passion and share few feelings. Sternberg would say that they have which type of love?


According to sternberg, passion and commitment without intimacy result in

fatuous love

Clara and Gus have been married for 55 years. They share deep intimacy and commitment but are no longer passionate. According to Sternberg, their love is now


According to research the chance of finding a potential partner with the same interest in three favorite leisure activities and with similar opinions about three important role preferences is___percent


In demand/withdrawal interactio, women tend to be more___and men more____

demanding; withdrawing

What percentage of men in the US and Canada each year have said that they have pushed, grabbed, kicked, or shoved their partner at least one time


Which of the following occurrences is a result of intimate terrorism?

battered wife syndrome

What percentage of all emerging adults have said that they receive money from their parents in addition to food, medical care, tuition, and other support.


what is enmeshment

parents always knowing what their emerging adult children are doing or thinking?

Which of the following is the biggest determinant of whether a child will develop healthy lifestyle habits?

having parents, teachers, and peers who demonstrate healthy lifestyle habits

For girls, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is:

the beginning of breast development, the growth spurt, and menarche.

For boys, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is:

growth of the testes; initial pubic-hair growth; growth of the penis; spermarche

The hormone that causes the ovaries and testes to greatly increase their production of estradiol and testosterone is:

gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

Chris is just starting to experience an eightfold increase in the amount of estrogen. Chris is most likely a:

normal 9-year-old girl.

Roger is typically an easygoing adolescent but every once in awhile he suddenly becomes moody and lashes out at his younger sister. Which of the following pubertal processes would most likely contribute to this behavior?

a sudden increase in testosterone levels

The adolescent who will probably find puberty most difficult is:

Katya, an early maturer.

Sharon is concerned about deficiencies in her daughter Alana's diet. If Alana is a typical teen, Sharon should prepare:

a steak to increase her iron.

When Patty looks in the mirror, she sees an overweight girl. She is 5 feet tall and weighs 87 pounds. She does aerobics for at least two hours daily and eats very little. Patty most likely suffers from:

anorexia nervosa.

Josephina is obsessed with her weight, yet she will eat a whole package of Oreos in one sitting. Afterwards she will go into the bathroom and make herself vomit. Josephina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. Josephina most likely suffers from:

bulimia nervosa.

Which of the following behaviors seems to reduce the risk of an adolescent developing an eating disorder?

the family sharing meals together

The growth spurt begins with a(n):

increase in bone length.

The growth spurt typically occurs during puberty in the following order:

weight, height, muscle.

In adolescence, changes in heart and lung capacity include:

greater lung capacity.

Barry is taking a weight-lifting class in high school. The weights he lifts should:

be tailored to his size of the previous year

Changes in primary sex characteristics during puberty include:

growth of the uterus and the testes.

Secondary sex characteristics are characteristics that:

are not directly related to reproduction.

Which of the following has the largest impact on whether adolescent sexual discovery and exploration is healthy and enjoyable or shameful and frightening?

social context

Young people who are sexually exploited:

tend to devalue themselves throughout life.

Of the following parts of the brain, which is the last to fully mature in adolescence?

prefrontal cortex

José enjoys sports, especially running. As an adolescent, he has the potential to become a star athlete. Which of the following influences will be most beneficial to him in reaching his full potential?

rapid changes in myelination in his brain and guidance of an experienced coach

The still-developing prefrontal cortex and the full development of the limbic system are at least partially responsible for the:

passion and commitment with which adolescents and young adults embrace nontraditional ideas.

In general, adolescent egocentrism refers to the:

view that one is noticed by everyone.

A 15-year-old girl realizes that the dress she has worn to school has a small stain on it. Her belief that everyone will notice it is an example of:

adolescent egocentrism.

Many adolescents feel that their own thoughts and experiences are far more extraordinary than those of other people. This is part of their:

personal fable.

Sixteen-year-old Paul drinks heavily and drives dangerously fast, believing that he cannot be hurt. Paul is demonstrating:

the invincibility fable.

The term imaginary audience refers to adolescents':

false belief that everyone is constantly attending to their behavior and appearance.

Recent research has indicated that many adolescents:

do not feel invincible.

Reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality defines:

hypothetical thought

Which of the following statements about hypothetical thought is true?

Hypothetical thought involves imagined possibilities.

Which of the following terms refers to the ability to begin with specifics, such as accumulated facts, and then make general conclusions?

inductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning is also referred to as:

top-down reasoning.

Using inductive thinking, a person might think, "If it barks like a dog and wags its tail like a dog, it must be a ______."


Elle, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for citizens' health care. From this premise, she reasons about the particulars of how and why government-funded health care would work. This is an example of:

deductive reasoning.

Recent research examining the development of formal logic has demonstrated that:

development may be far less stagelike than Piaget believed.

Analytic thinking requires a certain level of:

brain capacity, intellectual maturity, and motivation.

As adolescents gain experience in making decisions and thinking things through, they:

become better at knowing when analysis is needed.

Many adolescents consider their faith a tool to be used to:

All of the answers are correct.

The common middle-school schedule that involves classroom changes every 40 minutes has the effect of:

creating a developmental mismatch.

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