Which of the following changes listed in the textbook as a result of brain aging?
reaction time lengthens.
As the former captain of the football team, John organized a game for his 25th high-school class reunion. Afterward, all the players complained that they were aching, and that they were much stronger and faster in high school. What is the nature of their biosocial changes?
Their fibers for Type I muscles have been reduced by about 25% since highschool.
Which of the following changes is listed in the textbook as a result of the brain aging?
Reaction time lengthens
Harry is 65 years old and can hear well enough to understand a whisper spoken three feet away. In a sample of 65-year-old men, Harry would be:
Which of the following statements about hormone replacement therapy is true?
Researchers now believe that the studies demonstrating its positive effects were invalid
The term male menopause is sometimes used to refer to
a dip in testosterone in response to anxiety or sexual inactivity.
If a person is experiencing several stressors and the person's organs reserve is depleted the physiological toll of those stressors can
speed up the heart
When dealing with stressors, men tend to be____ in their style, while women tend to be ____.
problem focused, emotion focused.
The tens of millions of Americans who live in neglected neighborhoods and who are of low socioeconomic status:
tend to live as much as 30 years less than the 10 million healthiest Americans.
When Schaie conducted cross-sectional research comparing the cognitive abilities of adults of different ages, he found:
a gradual decline in intellectual ability with age
Who has the best chance of maintaining intellectual abilities into late adulthood?
Martin, who has a college education, a happy marriage, and a good retirement plan
The ability that involves crystallized intelligence to the greatest extent is:
interpreting a chemical formula.
Which of the following statements about changes in intelligence is true?
Age-related declines are first noted for skills that require speed of response
When students take multiple-choice exams, they are using the form of intelligence that Sternberg calls:
Betty is a retired registered nurse who fills in at the local hospital when the staff is in need of nurses. She is frequently called in without advance notice and must take over without any time to get oriented. Betty must rely on intelligence that Sternberg calls
What did Baltes and Baltes call the capacity of adults to use their intellectual strengths to compensate for declining capacities?
selective optimization with compensation
According to many developmentalists, the key to successful aging is:
the capacity to accommodate to changes over time.
Data from the Seattle Longitudinal Study demonstrated that as adults grow older, their intellectual functioning increases if they:
do paid work that is intellectually challenging.
Most developmental theorists today believe that:
stages of adult development are not entirely orderly and predictable
Which statement most accurately depicts researchers' current views on the midlife crisis?
Believing in its existence may help middle-aged adults cope with the changes that occur
Matilda is usually a kind, helpful, and easygoing person. She is high on which of the Big Five traits?
Davetta is very organized and tends to conform easily. She is high on which of the Big Five traits?
A particular lifestyle and social context that evokes and reinforces personality traits is called an
Chris is high in extroversion and therefore will probably
prefer to work with people and have a busy social life
The group of people who move through life with an individual providing protection and encouragement is their:
In which country did a six-nation study find the highest rates of affection between adults and their aging parents?
Jeremy was reared in several foster homes and never knew his parents. When he started working with Kent, he became close to Kent's family to the point where they fondly referred to him as "our new-found son." Jeremy is the family's
Which of the following conditions affects the long-term quality of a marriage?
the partners' personalities
Manuel and Rosa have been married for nearly 30 years. Their youngest child left home six months ago. The quality of their marriage should:
improve since they have more time to spend together.
Hal and Darcy endured many stressful years in their marriage resulting in much unhappiness. Over time, their marriage rebounded and improved. Research indicates that:
learning to understand and forgive each other promotes happiness.
Although couples typically divorce because some aspects of the marriage have become difficult to endure, divorce has other impacts. What is one of the impacts that divorce has on couples?
Research finds that women typically suffer from divorce more than men do, but what is one impact of divorce on aging fathers?
Research indicates that remarried people:
have a greater chance of divorce than do people in first marriages
Aunt Emily is the family's kinkeeper. This means that she assumes responsibility for:
gathering the family for holidays, sending birthday reminders, and disseminating family communications.
During young adulthood, all body systems—including the digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and sexual-reproductive systems—function:
Larry is 30 years old and will play tennis with 18-year-old Chris. They are equally matched in ability. Larry will probably
need more rest afterward to allow bodily functions to return to normal
The term "organ reserve" refers to:
the extra capacity available to an organ when subjected to stress
The diathesis-stress model of mental illness proposes that a combination of ______ and ______ produces mental disorders.
genetic vulnerability; environmental stresses
___________ disorders include panic attacks, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which a person becomes overwhelmed by:
All of the answers are correct
Two factors that tend to maintain good exercise habits beyond emerging adulthood include:
friendship and communities designed for activity.
Derrick delivers messages on his bike all over the busy, hilly streets of downtown San Francisco. He engages in
Using a drug in a quantity or a manner that harms physical, cognitive, or psychosocial well-being is called drug:
______ are the biggest substance abusers, but their illegal drug use drops much faster than their cigarette smoking or binge drinking.
A large university is attempting to reduce student alcohol and nicotine use. A survey was distributed to all students, and the results were published in the student newspaper. Fewer students than anticipated drank and smoked, much to many students' surprise. The university conducted this research using the:
social norms approach.
Most emerging adults struggle with ______; however, adults gradually master it as their cognition matures.
A common logical error of emerging adults is delay discounting, the tendency to:
undervalue events in the future.
A research study of people aged 13-45 found that logical skills improved from ______ to ______, then stayed steady.
adolescence; emerging adulthood
Emily's parents were becoming exasperated. She just changed majors for the third time since her freshman year in college. As a junior, she would have additional prerequisite credits to complete to prepare for the new major. Emily is demonstrating:
William arrived at a large, culturally diverse university from a small isolated town, excited to start his college education. Quickly, though, he became fearful and suspicious of students different than himself. William needs to:
use cognitive flexibility to counter the stereotypes he has learned.
The study in which adults were asked to suggest solutions to 15 real-life problems demonstrated that:
familiarity with situations enabled adults to be more flexible.
Jeff is a fun-loving, intelligent, responsible teenager who likes to dye his hair different colors. However, he is concerned that other people might construe his hair color as reflection of low achievement. His concern is over:
Alicia is a chemical engineer who has endured sexism throughout her career. Her 14-year-old daughter would like also to go into chemical engineering. Alicia supports her daughter's goals but worries that she, too, will be subjected to ______ as Alicia had been.
The adult thinking process in which every idea implies an opposite idea, and both the idea and its opposite can be integrated into a synthesis is referred to as:
In an essay, Michelle begins by writing that knowing the truth sets people free. In her next paragraph, she opposes this idea with the idea that knowing the truth often involves learning about limitations and constraints on freedom. In her third paragraph, Michelle integrates these two perspectives. Michelle's essay best demonstrates:
Carol Gilligan would probably say that choices about which of the following aspects of life are most likely to advance moral thinking?
Four-year-old Davis believes that God gave his little brother to his mother because she stayed overnight at the hospital. Davis is at the ______ stage of religious faith.
The stage of faith that is based on God rewarding those who follow His laws punishing other is referred to as:
Favoring what feels right over what makes intellectual sense is typical of___ faith
The type of faith in which people can accept contradictions and incorporate both powerful unconscious ideas and rational, conscious values is
Identify the true statement about developmentists' view of faith and religion
it progresses from a self centered prospective to a many sided altruistic view
According to Fowler's religious stages, faith, like other aspects of cognition, progresses from a(n) ___ view of life to a (n) ___ view
simple, self centered, one sided, complex, unselfish
The first phase of college students' thinking is
believing in the existence of clear and perfect truths
Perry found that over the four years of their college careers, students:
progress through nine levels of complexity in their thinking
Which of the following statements about cohort effects regarding the effect of college on cognitive development is true?
the increased diversity of the college atmosphere probably helps to enhance cognitive development
Colleges that make use of their diversity by including___ help students stretch their understanding not only of differences and similarities among people but also of themselves.
all of the answers are correct
Research has revealed that college education leads students to become
more tolerant of differing religions and political views.
jessica is 21 years old. how is her circle of friends likely to differ from that of her mother when she was jessica's age?
Jessica's circle of friends is more likely to include both males and females
friendships between men are less intimate than those between women because
men are more hesitant to express their vulnerabilities
which of the following is a particular advantage of cross sex friendships
oppurtunity to learn about the opposite sex
Which of the following statements about the qualities young adults seek from a romantic partner is true?
culture greatly affects the qualities sought by individuals
According to Sternberg, when commitment, passion, and intimacy are all present, the form of love is ___
Jim and Margaret have been married for 35 years. They feel no passion and share few feelings. Sternberg would say that they have which type of love?
Clara and Gus have been married for 55 years. They share deep intimacy and commitment but are no longer passionate. According to Sternberg, their love is now
According to research the chance of finding a potential partner with the same interest in three favorite leisure activities and with similar opinions about three important role preferences is___percent
What percentage of men in the US and Canada each year have said that they have pushed, grabbed, kicked, or shoved their partner at least one time
What percentage of all emerging adults have said that they receive money from their parents in addition to food, medical care, tuition, and other support.
Which of the following is the biggest determinant of whether a child will develop healthy lifestyle habits?
having parents, teachers, and peers who demonstrate healthy lifestyle habits
For girls, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is:
the beginning of breast development, the growth spurt, and menarche.
For boys, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is:
growth of the testes; initial pubic-hair growth; growth of the penis; spermarche
The hormone that causes the ovaries and testes to greatly increase their production of estradiol and testosterone is:
Chris is just starting to experience an eightfold increase in the amount of estrogen. Chris is most likely a:
normal 9-year-old girl.
Roger is typically an easygoing adolescent but every once in awhile he suddenly becomes moody and lashes out at his younger sister. Which of the following pubertal processes would most likely contribute to this behavior?
a sudden increase in testosterone levels
Sharon is concerned about deficiencies in her daughter Alana's diet. If Alana is a typical teen, Sharon should prepare:
a steak to increase her iron.
When Patty looks in the mirror, she sees an overweight girl. She is 5 feet tall and weighs 87 pounds. She does aerobics for at least two hours daily and eats very little. Patty most likely suffers from:
Josephina is obsessed with her weight, yet she will eat a whole package of Oreos in one sitting. Afterwards she will go into the bathroom and make herself vomit. Josephina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. Josephina most likely suffers from:
Which of the following behaviors seems to reduce the risk of an adolescent developing an eating disorder?
the family sharing meals together
Barry is taking a weight-lifting class in high school. The weights he lifts should:
be tailored to his size of the previous year
Which of the following has the largest impact on whether adolescent sexual discovery and exploration is healthy and enjoyable or shameful and frightening?
Of the following parts of the brain, which is the last to fully mature in adolescence?
José enjoys sports, especially running. As an adolescent, he has the potential to become a star athlete. Which of the following influences will be most beneficial to him in reaching his full potential?
rapid changes in myelination in his brain and guidance of an experienced coach
The still-developing prefrontal cortex and the full development of the limbic system are at least partially responsible for the:
passion and commitment with which adolescents and young adults embrace nontraditional ideas.
A 15-year-old girl realizes that the dress she has worn to school has a small stain on it. Her belief that everyone will notice it is an example of:
Many adolescents feel that their own thoughts and experiences are far more extraordinary than those of other people. This is part of their:
Sixteen-year-old Paul drinks heavily and drives dangerously fast, believing that he cannot be hurt. Paul is demonstrating:
the invincibility fable.
The term imaginary audience refers to adolescents':
false belief that everyone is constantly attending to their behavior and appearance.
Reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality defines:
Which of the following statements about hypothetical thought is true?
Hypothetical thought involves imagined possibilities.
Which of the following terms refers to the ability to begin with specifics, such as accumulated facts, and then make general conclusions?
Using inductive thinking, a person might think, "If it barks like a dog and wags its tail like a dog, it must be a ______."
Elle, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for citizens' health care. From this premise, she reasons about the particulars of how and why government-funded health care would work. This is an example of:
Recent research examining the development of formal logic has demonstrated that:
development may be far less stagelike than Piaget believed.
Analytic thinking requires a certain level of:
brain capacity, intellectual maturity, and motivation.
As adolescents gain experience in making decisions and thinking things through, they:
become better at knowing when analysis is needed.
The common middle-school schedule that involves classroom changes every 40 minutes has the effect of:
creating a developmental mismatch.
A strategy to increase student motivation in high schools is widespread participation in:
after-school athletic teams or clubs.
Seventeen-year-old Andrew failed several classes, lost his job, and spends most of his time sleeping on the couch. When his parents voiced their disapproval, he replied, "Whatever." Andrew's response indicates identity:
Adoption of parents' or society's roles and values, rather than questioning and exploring a personal identity, is referred to as identity:
The term for a pause in identity formation, when alternatives are explored before final choices are made, is known as:
Harold readily adopted his parent's religious faith without question. Happy and secure, he enjoys participating in religious events with his parents. His identity status reflects:
Sexual self-definition is comprised of three aspects:
gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation.
Which of the following statements regarding ethnic identity is true?
A child who belongs to an ethnic minority usually begins to establish an ethnic identity in adolescence and is likely to continue to explore the implications of this identity for many more years.
Parental monitoring is most likely to be effective and healthy when it is:
part of a warm, supportive relationship.
Michelle's parents were permissive throughout her childhood. Now that Michelle is an adolescent, they are trying to exert control over her. What is likely to be the outcome of this scenario?
Michelle is likely to be angry and defiant.
At age 17, Jeff aspired to become a serious musician. His group of friends began to change as he made more friends with serious musical interests and drifted away from friends with other interests. He is exhibiting peer
Michelle is likely to be angry and defiant.
A survey conducted in 2008 found that 0.5 percent of American high school students identified themselves as gay or lesbian, while a survey in Holland found that 8.5 percent of students said that they were attracted to others of their same sex. Which of the following statements is the most likely explanation for this statistical difference?
Open same-sex relationships are more culturally accepted in Holland than in the United States.
Ideally, before having sex, teenagers would discuss the risks of pregnancy and STIs, but in reality only about ______ of them have these discussions.
The abstinence-only sex-education program that was widely promoted in the United States in 1998 resulted in:
no significant impact on sexual activity by teenagers.