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World History Chapter 13 and 14
Mrs. Wilde "European Middle Ages, 500 - 1200"
Terms in this set (90)
The era in European history that followed the fall of the Roman Empire, lasting from about 500 to 1500 - also called the medieval period. This period of time in Europe combines the classical heritage of Rome, the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church, and the customs of Germanic tribes.
The Germanic people who lived and held power in Gaul. Their leader was Clovis and he would later bring Christianity to the region. By 511 the Franks had united into one kingdom and they controlled the largest and strongest parts of Europe.
A place where communities of monks live lives of devotion to God in isolation from the outside world.
Things concerned with worldly matters rather than spiritual, or church matters.
The family that ruled the Franks from 751 to 987. The Dynasty was started by Pepin The Short, and brought to the hight of its power by his son Charlemagne.
The Frankish king who conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800.
In the feudal system this person was a landowner, who could grant fiefs (land) to a vassal.
Land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service.
A person granted land from a lord in return for loyalty and service.
A man who received honor and land in exchange for serving a lord as a soldier. These were well trained soldiers who fought on horseback for their chosen lord.
A peasant laborer who was bound by law to the lands of a noble. He was different from a slave in that he could not be bought or sold but in everyother way was owned by his feudal lord.
A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.
Also known as a Church tax, this was a tenth of a family's income given to the church.
This was a Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages in which they were required to be loyal to their feudal lord, God, and their chosen lady.
Mock battle in which knights would compete against one another to show off their fighting skills.
A medieval poet and musician who traveled from place to place, entertaining people.
Religious officials, such as priests, given authority to conduct religious services.
These are important religious ceremonies, in the Christian church, that help pave the way to salvation. [ex. Baptism, Communion, Marriage]
The body of laws governing the religious practices of the Christian church and its members.
Holy Roman Empire
A political entity in Europe that began with the papal coronation of Otto I as the first emperor in 962. It was a weak political association of independent states in Germany and Italy.
The appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles.
Also known as Charles the Hammer. The Carolingian monarch of the Franks who was responsible for defeating Muslims at the battle of Tours in 732, which ended the Muslim threat to western Europe.
Charles the Bald
He was the grandson of Charlemagne who received the western part of the empire (modern day France) after it was divided between the 3 brothers of Louis the Pious.
He was the eldest son of Louis the Pious, who took the middle kingdom and the title of Emperor after the kingdom was split between the 3 brothers.
Louis the German
He was a son of Louis the Pious, who took control of the area of modern day Germany when the empire was divided between he and his brothers.
Treaty of Verdun
The treaty that divided the carolingian empire into three sections, to be split between the three sons of Louis the Pious, signed in 843.
The Viking explorer believed to be the first European to reach the New World (in about 1000 AD).
Eleanor of Aquitaine
A powerful French duchess she divorced the king of France and then married Henry II of England. Together they ruled all of England and about 1/2 of France. She was the mother of King Richard the Lion-Hearted, and King John.
Richard the Lion-Hearted
The King of England from 1189 to 1199, he was the son of King Henry II and Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine. He fought in the Holy Land against Saladin during the Third Crusaded eventually ending in a truce.
Otto the Great
He was made king of Germany in 936 and formed a close alliance with the Church in order to limit the power of the nobles. In return for his military service to the pope he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 962, creating the Holy Roman Empire.
Fredrick I "Barbarossa"
Called Barbarossa because of his red beard he was known as a powerful personality and military. He was the German king who ruled the Holy Roman Empire, being the first one to call it that, until his death in 1190.
Battle of Legnano
This battle took place in 1176 between Fredrick I "Barbarossa", and the Lombard League (a group of Italian merchants) who were joined by the Pope. Fredrick's knights were beaten by the Lomard League's foot soldiers who were using cross bows, forcing him to ask for peace.
A medival monk and secretary of Charlemagne who wrote his biography.
An Italian monk who lived from 480-547 and founded the Benedictine order. He wrote a set of rules to be followed in order to live a holy life.
She was the sister of Benedict who headed a convent and adapted her brothers rules, for a holy life, for women.
He was an English monk who wrote a history of England in 731, which is considered one of the best works of the midieval ages.
He was a strong pope, known as Gregory the Great, who strengthened the power of the papacy (office of the pope) and the church. He extended his power to include worldly politics and not just spiritual matters.
He was the Frankish king who converted the Franks to Christianity around 496. He was able to unite all the Frankish people into one kingdom under his rule by 511.
Louis the Pious
He was Charlemagne's only surviving son who ruled the Carolingian empire from 814-840. He was a very devout man but an inept leader who divided the empire between his 3 sons brining an end to Carolingian empire.
Another name for Vikings these were Germanic people who attacked and pillaged the people of Europe.
Also known as "Norsemen" or "Northmen" these German and Scandinavian peoples raided Europe from the 700's through the 1100's.
This nomadic group attacked Western Europe from the east, sweeping across the plains of the Danube River. They came from what is now Hungary and were known for their great horsemanship.
A Germanic people who invaded northern Italy in the 6th century and later parts of western Gaul(France). When they attacked Rome they were defeated by Charlemagne who was then crowned Emperor as thanks for his service.
These men were the religious leaders of a monastery.
Emperor Henry IV
He fought against Pope Gregory VII over the power to choose church officials and was excommunicated. He had to beg for forgiveness for three days in the cold in order to be let back in the church.
Pope Leo III
He crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day, 800.
The Song of Roland
A famous medieval epic poem that praises a band of French soldiers who perished in battle during Charlemagne's reign.
This was a form of punishment for not following Church law. It ment that a person was banned from the Church and its sacraments, in other words, you could not go to heaven.
The pope could forbid priests to give the sacraments of the Church to the people of a town, or a country (kicking them out of the church). This was a weapon of the Roman Catholic church in order to punish those who went against the Pope.
Pope Gregory VII
He banned Lay Investitures because he thought popes should have the power to name bishops not the kings. He excommunicated Henry IV because he spoke out against him over this issure causing a standoff that Gregory eventually won.
Concordat of Worms
A compromise between the king and the Pope that stated that the church alone could grant a church position, but the King would have the right to veto the possition.
A young boy, usually around the age of 7, who was sent to a castle to learn courtly manners and begin his training to become a knight.
When a Page reached the age of 14 he was able to become a servant of a Knight who would then train him.
Two inch iron spikes thrown on battlefields intended to wound horses.
The selling of official positions in the medieval Roman Catholic Church. https://o.quizlet.com/Ip8HiIs7dUS0vQGoqJ8ILw_m.jpg
A type of European architecture that developed in the Middle Ages, that created large buildings that focused on light and beauty. They were characterized by flying buttresses, ribbed vaulting, thin walls, high roofs, and stained glass windows. https://o.quizlet.com/t7A0JkISZkxZpn7lx.YaTA_m.jpg
He was the Pope who called for the first Crusade in 1095. He wanted the European Christian nations to unite to win the Holy Land back from Muslim Turks. https://o.quizlet.com/xxG2WR3DpqfXn7hdJNgjrQ_m.jpg
A holy war. Specifically a number of wars in which medieval Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy land from the Muslims. https://o.quizlet.com/frKFWxrGBkLWBQjHxgyRIg_m.jpg
The powerful leader of the Muslims during the third crusade who captured Jerusalem in 1187, and signed a truce with King Richard the Lion-Hearted in 1192. https://o.quizlet.com/rtlnLu0asU.TmJ5juNDwSw_m.jpg
Richard the Lion-Hearted
The English king that was left to lead the crusaders in an attempt to regain the Holy Land from Saladin during the Third Crusade. He made a truce with Saladin which allowed unarmed Christian pilgrims to visit the city's holy places. https://o.quizlet.com/LrbXUYwXTDnGHIi2E6CJSg_m.jpg
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslim Moors out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492. https://o.quizlet.com/-okEyI.6.5T84ecEQAKjYA_m.jpg
A church court set up to try people accused of heresy. https://o.quizlet.com/EaR67S4-PSqOolcBbpfJVg_m.jpg
It was part of the agricultural revolution, a farming technique that left one field out of three sallow for a year to replenish the soil. https://o.quizlet.com/u585GsfWwhD6btUwJ4Nbaw_m.jpg
An organization of people in the same craft or trade, who worked together to improve the economic or social conditions of its members. https://o.quizlet.com/R8zn5meS5yQdEwfZ52Ngsg_m.jpg
This included the expansion of trade and new ways of doing buisness that transformed the European economies. https://o.quizlet.com/lm5NUDDHaMsnX65fCQJMbA_m.jpg
People who were in the merchant class and lived in towns. https://o.quizlet.com/hLK7PhP55zOQc8gPryI0gg_m.jpg
The everyday language of people in a region or country. https://o.quizlet.com/3IgpwCAnj88CfdkGbClGhQ_m.png
He was a scholar who argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by sound reasoning. He wrote a book called "Summa Theologicae", which combined ancient Greek thought with Christian beliefs. https://o.quizlet.com/3C3-oYhtkdfDLSd50qRk-w_m.jpg
Also called Schoolmen, these men were scholars who gathered at medieval European universities to learn and debate. https://o.quizlet.com/y09rUXtQT.addzw9NrVbVw_m.jpg
William the Conqueror
He was the Duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England (1066), and became the first Norman to be King of England. https://o.quizlet.com/PPN159F7yDbYkntELDKF7w_m.jpg
The 12th century English king who made important changes to the countries Judicial system by the introduction of the jury system (later to be known as Common Law). He married Eleanor of Aquitaine, gaining him rich French lands, and together they had King Richard the Lion-Hearted, and King John. https://o.quizlet.com/fw3ihuxH8LT43uJ5Wv-lwA_m.jpg
Laws that were common to the whole kingdom and were based on past rulings in the courts. This began to replace law codes that varied from place to place. https://o.quizlet.com/VA2sMz92otTNnHu4zHapTA_m.jpg
The Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215. It established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury, and due process of law, to the nobility. https://o.quizlet.com/AfS4gmaZsSHUAIeqSOd6jg_m.jpg
The body of representatives that makes laws for The English nation. It was created by Edward I in order to raise money for his wars in France, and agianst the Welsh, and Scots. https://o.quizlet.com/0uykjoWvSHc3-5OQdgAuMQ_m.jpg
He was the French king who succeeded Louis the Sluggard in 987. He was an undistinguished duke from the middle of France, who started the Capetian Dynasty. https://o.quizlet.com/FOBg3tyNn2s50f1eXOT7-Q_m.jpg
Philip II of France
Also known as Philip Augustus, he was the Capetian king who increased the territory of France, and wanted to form a stronger central government. He was the most powerful of the Capetian Kings and was willing to do anything to get what he wanted. https://o.quizlet.com/unIsaIxdNLMI4JUJ9zzX6A_m.jpg
This was an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France. It was a government body created to increase the power of the king over the nobility. https://o.quizlet.com/GK0.Epd9Je76rg4li-G6yQ_m.jpg
This was a city in southern France which became home to the Papacy from 1305 to 1377. When Clement V was elected pope in 1305 he moved the the center of Church power to this city. https://o.quizlet.com/asXGSlN3gmckM75PI3tY5Q_m.jpg
A period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over who should be the pope. During this time there were two, or sometimes even three people claiming to be the true Pope. https://o.quizlet.com/fjQ1rTtSWopL60T2ITB9Vw_m.jpg
He was an English reformer who translated the Bible into Anglo-Saxon, and spread radical teachings. He taught that Jesus is the head of the church not the pope, and that the Bible is the final authority for Christian life. https://o.quizlet.com/qT2yBPkuk-cJD0Z8lNyhug_m.jpg
He was a Czechoslovakian religious reformer who taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than that of the Pope. He was excommunicated from the Church in 1412, tried as a heratic, and burned at the stake in 1415. https://o.quizlet.com/G3jumuzIJ8lSsR4P6j0yiA_m.jpg
Also called the Black Death, this was a deadly disease that spread throughout Europe and killed one out of every three people, in the 1300's. https://o.quizlet.com/.au3AN9eQCC-WbPRR.jLfg_m.jpg
Hundred Years' War
A Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families. This war lasted from 1337 to 1453 and changed forever the the style of Warfare in Europe. https://o.quizlet.com/i/G7d135c72a532x5ODtf1Dg_m.jpg
Joan of Arc
She was a French peasant girl who became a military leader, inspired by religious visions that told her to organize a French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII, of France, crowned king. She was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake in 1431. https://o.quizlet.com/Ap.vaqy-nPcuSGp3WIs3ew_m.jpg
The appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles. https://o.quizlet.com/Jllf2wo2mqiq-v8PfVbYhw_m.jpg
(1096 to 1099) This crusade was launched by Pope Urban II and is considered the only successful crusade because they recaptured Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks. https://o.quizlet.com/T9sxQBtNsVLNXWPn1I8ljg_m.jpg
The crusades goal was to recapture Edessa but was a failure because of internal disagreements among the crusaders. This led to the lose of not only Edessa but also Jerusalem in 1187. [1145 to 1147] https://o.quizlet.com/mzYAvwXBEdHyjMNtDckhOw_m.jpg
Started in 1204 this Crusade never even reached the Holy Land but instead plundered Constantinople, a Christian City. https://o.quizlet.com/SR07F1tcS8eGDFQdSmc4gQ_m.jpg
This was a style of archetecture that was used in the building of churches from between 800 and 1100 AD. This style was characterized by thick walls, small windows, and rounded arches. https://o.quizlet.com/lXERJMT6y6ls-zH1G20dXw_m.jpg
St.Francis of Assisi
The Italian saint who founded the Franciscan order of friars in the 12th, and 13th Centures. He believed in treating all creatures, including animals, as spiritual brothers and sisters. https://o.quizlet.com/wLHeo7nB0ckDfjW30tJzpw_m.jpg
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