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Understanding the Psychology of Diversity 7-12
Terms in this set (230)
physical contact with a member of a negatively stereotyped group lessens negative feelings towards an individual and improves attitudes towards the group as a whole
sharing membership with people from an out-group allows creation of a common in-group identity and creation of superordinate groups
A feeling of association or identification with a person
splitting members of expert groups into combined groups with one expert from each subject in each group. it forces cooperation and reliance on others to learn
Robber's Cave Study
normal summer campers were set up into two groups and studied competition between the two, there was name-calling, attacks, prejudice, which was reduced with need for cooperation
a mutually shared goal that can be achieved only though intergroup cooperation
refers to a specific population of people whose body mass index is 30 or greater.
Body Mass Index
is a measure of weight that is correct for height and is the sole criterion for determining obesity
Endomorphic Body Shapes
What we now call plump or overweight.
Believed to be associated with complacency and the love for physical comforts.
viewed mostly negatively.
Mesomorphic Body Shapes
- Muscular body types
- associated with traits such as aggressiveness and love of adventure.
Ectomorphic Body Shape
- Individuals believed to be restrained and socially inhibited.
Prejudice and Discrimination against people because of their large size or extreme weight.
Involves strategically de-emphasizing the importance of a domain to one's self-concept and is often complemented by a corresponding selective valuing of an alternative domain on which one is likely to succeed.
- For example, devalues appearance and focuses more on intelligence.
- Has been shown to protect the identity and self-esteem of members of many negatively stereotypes groups, including obese persons.
involves offering a verbal or nonverbal signal of friendliness at the first sign that another person may be engaging in weightism.
Who is less likely to value the importance of thinness? Blacks or Whites?
Refers to the positive stereotypes, prejudice, and preferential treatment accorded to physical attractive people or more generally to people whose appearance matches cultural values and priorities.
Movement that challenges the moral panic and judgement surrounding obesity, including the beliefs that weight is controllable and significant weight loss is achievable.
Defense of Marriage Act
US federal law that allows states to refuse to recognize same-sex marriages granted under the laws of other states
don't ask, don't tell
official US policy on LGBT's in the military -- openly gay cannot serve. dismantled 2011
sexual orientation worldview that contains beliefs and attitudes that (a) all people are/should be heterosexual, (b) it is more desirable to be heterosexual, and (c) is represents the norm of gender identity and sexual attraction
feeling that any person should not act like a member of the opposite sex because they are undermining and betraying their own sex
gender and sexual minority - more encompassing than LGBT
Prejudice and discrimination against people because of their large size or extreme weight
Negative stereotypes, feelings, and behavior toward poor people or who are perceived to be economically impoverished
Involves stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination directed at people because of their homosexual orientation
Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination based on one's sexual identity or behavior
Suggests that people identify and categorize gays based on physical or perceptual cues, or at least they believe they can
Fear or disgust with erotic activity
Involves internalizing and living out the precepts of one's faith, as typically occurs in people whose faith is important to them
Involves a pragmatic approach to religion; extrinsically religious people use religion for social or personal goals
Religious beliefs that are based on a literal reading or scriptures and are held with certainty and rigidity
Chronic experience of being stereotyped and socially alienated
Freedom from disease and disability, good cognitive and physical functioning, social connections, and productive activities
Attitudes and beliefs, feelings, and behavior towards people based on their old age
The 'you' you know yourself to be
The 'you' other people believe you to be
Experience of being socially discredited or flawed by a personal trait or characteristics
Having mixed feelings about something or someone
Experienced indirectly based on one's association with a stigmatized individual
Reduce or at least understand the discrepancy by taking others' perspective on themselves
Doubts that arise in one's mind about one's own competence and worthiness when faced with others' negative beliefs about one's character and ability
Awareness that one is singled out by others based on a attributed that is negatively stereotyped
Refers to who caused or is responsible for the stigmatizing attribute, status, or condition or to what extent it could have been prevented
Refers to how apparent it is to others and how difficult it is to conceal from others
Master status attribute
Primary categorization identify someones race, sex, or age are
Largely based on identifiable physical characteristics
The term obese refers to?
A specific population of people whose body mass index is 30 or greater.
Body mass index is a measure of weight that is?
Corrected for height and is the sole criterion for defining obesity.
The media message may?
Indirectly contribute to prejudice against obese people.
Endomorphic body shapes are?
What we now call plump or overweight were believed to associated with complacency and the love of physical comforts.
Mesomorphic or muscular, body types were associated with?
Traits such as aggressiveness and love of adventure.
Ectomorphic or thin individuals were believed to be?
Restrained and socially inhibited.
Genetic influences on your body size and basic metabolic rate suggest that?
Weight is not very controllable.
Stereotypically, obesity combines beliefs about?
People with physical disabilities with the character flaws associated with other controllable behavioral deviations.
Prejudice and discrimination against people because of their large size or extreme weight is called?
Weightism, or more specifically, weight-based discrimination
Strategically de-emphasizing the importance of a domain to one's self concept and it is also been completed by a corresponding elective valuing of an alternative domain and which one is likely to succeed.
Heading off involves?
Offering a verbal for a nonverbal signal of friendliness at the first sign that another person may be engaging in weightism.
Lookism refers to the?
Positive stereotypes, prejudice, and preferential treatment accorded to physically attractive people.
The size acceptance movement challenges?
The moral panic and judgment surrounding obesity, including the beliefs that weight is controllable and significant weight loss is achievable.
class system which refers to
negative stereotypes feelings and behaviors toward poor people or people who are perceived to be economically improvished
Moral exclusion involves
excluding dehumanizing and punishing people who are perceived to be indifferent or threatening to the empowered beliefs and values
Stereotyping prejudice and discrimination directed at people because of their homosexual orientation.
sexual prejudice include
stereotyping prejudice and discrimination based on ones sexual identity or behavior.
what is the problem with the gaydar hypothesis?
Is that the accuracy of gaydar judgments cannot be objectively and strenuously tested in real life.
fear and disgust with erotic activity
intrinsic relgiousness invovles?
internalizing and living out the percepts of ones fait as typically occurs in people whoese fatih is important to them.
extrinsic relgiousness invloves a?
Pragmatic approach to religio, extriniscally religious people use religion for social or personal goals.
Religious beliefs that are based on literal reading of scriptures and are held with certainty and rigidy.
Minority stress refers to?
The crhonic eperience of being stereotyped and socially alienated.
Conversion therapy, also called relarative therapy, is the name given to?
Therapeutic efforts to turn gay people into hetrosexuals.
Successful aging is?
Is concept that incorporates freedom from disease and disability, good congitive and physical funtioning, social connections, and productive activities.
Fewer than how many older adults are aging succesfully?
Fewer than 12%
Ageism which refers to?
Attitudes and belifes, feelings, and behaviour towrd people based on their old age.
What is elderspeak?
Elderspeak features more basic vocabulary and simpler structure, a slower speech rate, and more pitch variations than typical conversational speech.
Allowed workers to leave employment and begin a new stage of life caled?
Actual Identity or the you...
You know yourself to be.
Virtual Identity or the you...
People believe you to be.
The state of having mixed feelings or contradictory ideas about something or someone.
Courtesy Stigma is?
One's association with a stigmatized individual.
Mindfulness is when?
Taking others perspective on themselves.
Stereotype threat refers to?
Doubt that arise in one's mind about one's own competence and worthiness.
Stigma consciousness is when?
The awareness that one is singled out by others based on an attribute that is negatively stereotyped.
Stigma Controllability refers to who caused or is responsible for the?
Stigmatizing attribute, status, or condition, or to what extent it could have been prevented.
Just world theory argues that?
WE have a general need to see the world as reasonable, orderly, and just.
Stigma visibility refers to?
How apparent it is to others and how difficult it is to conceal from others.
Master Status Attribute is when?
All of a stigmatized persons others abilities and qualities will become subordinate to and colored.
Stigma Management are?
Strategies for coping with social stigma.
Those of us who posses majority status are?
Members of relatively advantaged groups.
Withdrawal is one strategy by which?
Stigmatized individuals may cope with the negative social implications of stigma is to simply avoid people who treat them stereo-typically.
Passing concerns methods and strategies for?
Concealing one's stigmatizing attribute or condition from others.
Stigmatized people deliberately presenting to others behavior that contradicts the assumptions held about their abilities.
Covering is the pressure to?
Conform to mainstream straight norms, and is a new form of discrimination.
Social inequality can be defined in?
Comparative or absolute terms.
Comparability speaking inequality occurs when?
People from some social groups have vastly worst life outcomes.
In absolute terms social inequality occurs when?
The members of a group do not have some minimum amount of opportunity and resources to make a decent life.
The contact hypothesis says that?
Physical contact with a member of negatively stereotyped group lessens the negative beliefs and feelings we hold about that individual and improves our attributes and feelings toward the group as a whole.
Imagined intergroup contact occurs when?
People mentally simulate contact with someone from another social group or category.
Stereotype inhibition involves?
Deliberate monitoring and suppressing of expressing one's automatic prejudices.
Stereotype substitution is?
Self-instruction and rehearsal in detecting, avoiding, and replacing one's own stereotypes.
Cross categorization is the?
Realization that you share a group membership with people from a disliked out-group.
Cognitive empathy refers to?
Perspective taking or the act of imagining the circumstances and perspective of someone else.
Emotional empathy refers to?
Trying to share others feelings or responding emotionally to the plight or circumstances of another person.
primary categorizations are
race, sex, age
primary categorizations are largely
based on identifiable physical characteristics
body size is a visible
aspect of human diversity that aids in primary categorization
the term obese refers
to a specific population of people whose body mass index is 30 or greater
body mass index
is a measure of weight that is corrected for height
body mass index is the sole
criterion for defining obesity
female-a body mass index of 30 is equivalent to
a 5'4" woman who weighs 175 pounds
male-a body mass index of 30 is equivalent to
a 5'10" man who weighs 205 pounds
obesity affects a large
number of people; widespread
obesity does not spread
William Sheldon (psychologist)1940's
endomorphic/plump or overweight/complacent and love of physical comforts; mesomorphic/muscular/aggressiveness and love of adventure; ectomorphic/thin/restrained and socially uninhibited
common obese stereotypes about abilities and character
lazy, self-indulgent, unattractive, asexual, unhappy, lacking in self-esteem, socially inept, uncooperative, intellectually slow
people who hold negative attitudes towards obese people
tend to be socially and politically conservative
conservatives generally endorse
racist attitudes, support capital punishment, espouse (adopt/support) traditional sexual values
of weight shapes our views of obese people and our treatment of them
weight loss and weight gain tendencies
seem to be largely inherited
permanent weight loss
90% of people that diet
regain all or almost all their weight back
the belief that obese people are unhealthy is
a common stereotypical view
exercise reduces the health risks associated with obesity
even when no weight loss occurs
Weightism is directed more at girls
than at boys
96% of overweight girls
experienced teasing, jokes, and mean names by peers
girls internalize more than boys
negative obesity stereotypes
engage in substance abuse
disengage from academic pursuits
overweight daughters rather than overweight sons are discriminated against
more by parents
weightism at work probably begins with hiring practices
that discriminate against overweight and obese applicants
obese employees are payed as much as 10%-12%
less than thin employees even when working at the same job
obese workers were less likely to be promoted
than their thin co workers
prejudice & discrimination against people because of their large size or extreme weight
involves strategically de-emphasizing the importance of a domain to one's self concept and is often complemented by a corresponding selective valuing of an alternative domain on which pne is likely to succeed
refers to the positive stereotypes, prejudice, and preferential treatment accorded to physically attractive people or more generally to people whose appearance matches cultural values and priorities (blonde hair)
movement changes the moral panic and judgment surrounding obesity,including the beliefs that weight is controllable and significant weight loss is achievable ex: NAAFA national association to advance fat acceptance & ISAA international size acceptance association
refers to negative stereotypes, feelings, and behavior toward poor people or people who are perceived to be economically impoverished ( not working hard enough) (unemployment)
involves excluding, dehumanizing, and punishing people who are perceived to be indifferent or threatening to the empowered group's beliefs and values
involves stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination directed at people because of their homosexual orientation
includes stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination based on one's sexual identity or behavior
suggests that people identify and categorize gays based on physical or perceptual cues, or at least they believe they can. ex: hair whorl patterns tend to grow in a counterclockwise direction among gay people and in a clockwise direction for heterosexuals. cannot be objevtively and strenuously tested in real life
fear and digust with erotic activity ex: (looking at pornography engaging in oral or anal sex) gay men and lesbo and gay sex
involves internalizing and living out the percepts pf ones faith, as typically occurs in people whose faith is important to them
involves a pragmatic approach to religion; extrinsically religious people use religion for social or personal goals ex: having a group of friends with similar interests
describes religious beliefs that are based on a literal reading of scriptures and are held with certainty and rigidity. Refers to how religious beliefs are formed and held rather than the content of those beliefs
refers to the chronic experience of being stereotyped (ex: disliked feared, judged) and socially alienated( ex:excluded from social institutions) is considered an extra layer of stress that simply adds to the typical relationship and work-related stress all people face
also called reparative therapy is the name given to therapeutic efforts to turn gay people into heterosexuals
a concept that incorpates freedom from disease and disability, good cognitive and physical functioning, social connections, and productive activities
refers to attitudes and beliefs, feelings, and behavior toward people based on thier old age
features more basic vocabulary and simpler structure, a slower speech rate, and more pitch variations than typical conversational speech. ex: older adults
pension plans, social security, and other worker provisions allowed workers to leave employment and begin a new stage of life
the experience of being socially discredited or flawed by a personal trait or characteristic
the you you know yourself to be (left column)
the you other people believe you to be right column)
rooted in two traditional and somewhat conflicting american values.
informed by what one's association with a stigmatized person seems to say about you
refers to the doubts that arise in one's mind about one's own competence and worthiness when faced with others' negative beliefs about one's character and ability
social consequence of stigma also accrue from the awareness that one is simgled out by others based on an attribute that is negatively stereotyped
refers to who caused or is responsible for the stigmatizing attribute, status, or condition or to what extent is could have been prevented
just world theory
argues that we have a general need to see the world and the people and events in it as reasonable, orderly, and just
refers to how apparent it is to others and how difficult it is to conceal from others
a final dimension of the social consequences of stigma is the danger that other people associate with a stigmatizing condition
master status attribute
all of a stigmatized person's other abilities and qualities will become subordinate to and colored. ex: college student-jolly clown who never met a meal he didn't like. weight has the become the dominant aspect of his identity not only to others by now to himself
individual strategies for coping with social stigma
one strategy by which stigmatized individuals may cope with the negative social implications of stigma namely, rejection, strained interactions, and loss of opportunity is to simply avoid people who treat them stereotypically
concerns methods and strategies for concealing one's stigmatizing attribute or condition from others. HIDING ONES STIGMATIZED IDENTITY FROM OTHERS
refers to demonstrating to other people that you, as a stigmatized person, are multidimensional and competent in several domains. ex: wheelchair athletes who play basketball show the nonstigmatized world that they are comparable or even superior to nonstigmatized people
involves stigmatized people deliberately presenting to others behavior that contradicts the assumptions held about their abilities or character
involves efforts to minimize the impact of one's stigmatizing attribute on social interactions
can be defined in comparative or absolute terms. Occurs when people from social groups have vastly worse life outcomes
says that physical contact with a member of a negatively stereotyped group lessens the negative beliefs and feelings we hold about that individual and improves our attitudes and feelings toward the group as a world
imagined intergroup contact
occurs when people mentally simulate contact ideally imagining a real-life, positive experience with someone from another social group or category
involves deliberate monitoring and suppressing of expressing one's automatic prejudices
was demonstrated in a study in which participants were exposed to pictures of Black or White people who were either widely liked or disliked
the realization that you share a group membership with people from a disliked out-group
refers to perspective taking or the act of imagining the circumstances and perspectives of someone else
involves trying to share another's feelings or responding emotionally to the plight or circumstances of another person
suppressed their stereotypes were significantly more prejudiced and stereotypical than those of he participants in the control group
Attend to the demeanor and behavior of the people with whom they interact. They are sensitive to the types of relations influenced by the orginizations structure and relational processes, the organizations "climate."
1. Language (verbal communication),
3.preconceptions, stereotypes, discrimination,
What are the 5 personal/interpersonal barriers?
Norms, policies, procedures, and programs unfriendly to cultural diversity
What are the organizational/institutional barriers?
refers to the system of verbal communication that was defined previously in the general aspects of culture. Ex. Monolingual spanish-speaking Mrs. Martinez, seeking an injection for arthritis, becomes highly fustrated when she visits the local monolingual english-speaking clinic.
Preconceptions and stereotypes
Function as a negative lenses through which people percieve others who look and act differently. Such these barriers are usually based on over generalized beliefs, assumptions, and misinformation. Ex. If an african american student is not from a poor inner city or is not an athlete.
Is a natural conswquence of the distorted view that results from preconceived and sterotypical thinking. Negative assumptions and beliefs provide psychological permission to behave in ways that discriminate against difference. Ex. An african american man leaves his work place to deposit his cashed paycheck on a nearby bank. He is detained by a pokic officer on the suspicion of theft.
A form that allows for a even celebrates the individual achievements of individual persons of color, but only because those individuals generally are seen as different from a less appealing, even pathological black or brown rule
Discrimination and prevailing steroptypes center on what some researchers refer to as?
Racism, sexismm classism, ageism, ableism, and heterosexism
What are the types of "isms"
Relate to preconceptions, stereotypes, and discrimination, the barrier is an unconscious and automatic tendency to pass negative judgement on people who look and behave in unfamiliar ways. Ex. Mary Johnson, a social worker for 12 years feels self righteously justified in correcting the accented speech patterns of her new vietnamese supervisor who speaks english as a second language.
A common human tendency to judge others by ones own cultural values and standards, which are perceived as superior.
Arises as the product of situations in which familiar communication and behavioral cues are missing. This barrier frequently affects all parties. For those treated as minorities in relation to power, opportunities, and respect. Mostly african americans, asians, latinos, women, elderly, children, GLBTS, and persons with disabilities.
One who becomes a special target of hostile treatment becuase he/she is perceived as different and therefore deserving of contempt.
____________ people find themselves routinely ignored or see that their contributions to group efforts at home, school, or work go unacknowledged.
The pressure to hurry up and learn the language, values, and life patterns of a mainstream culture before it becomes enormous is called
Invisible, Social exclusion
Two types of additional stressor besides the general stress are
Organizational/ insitutional barriers
The second category of barriers to effective communication and relationships is
1. Non-recognition of womens authority and the unrealistic expectations, based on historical stereotypes of womens capabilities.
2. Unequal opportunitues, pay, and benefits for women
3. Inappropriate sexual behavior directed at women
4. Confusion regarding gender role etiquette and language
5. Special difficulty balancing work and home life
Five gender issues constantly reported at work cites include?
1. The US. is a meritocracy of equal individuals
2. Americans dont have a culture
3. If it is different, it is wrong
4. One should never talk about cultural diversity
5. One should never admit to being prejudiced
Five significant assumptions of mainstream culture foster cultural diversity barriers are:
Laziness, negligence, or another personal failure
Consequently because our social system is assumed to be fair, people who do not succeed, he or she is assumed to be at fault because of?
Supposedly ______________ in the US dont have a culture because they are autonomous decesion makers who create their own individualized way of living
"Culture of no culture"
Some researchers refer to standard american culture as __________
Negroid, caucasoid, and asian
As it stands today in the US, the race concept narrowly percieves the entire world being divided into three distinct races: _________,___________, and ___________.
Skin color, nasal width, hair texture, and eye shape
Negroid, caucasoid and asian are described on the basis of such observable physcial features such as
"true, natural and inescapable"
The stereptype of "the three big races" has become so prevalent it is viewed as
This perception dictates that everyone must belong to one or more of these three races and that causcasion/whites are
Nordic, alpine, and mediterranean races
European races began to be thought of as composed of only the
Hyposescent, or the "One drop rule"
Defines a person as lower in status or postion if that person has just one ancestor who was a member of a lower group of that societys group hierarchy.
Has worked to impelement the forced assimilaltion of culturally diverse groups.
_________ is another U.S national cultural myth that is supported by the current emphasis on color-blind, race rhetoric, and national policy orientation.
Social status factors
Social group interaction patterns: intragroup ( within group relations) and intergroup (Between group relations)
Language and communication: verbal and non verbal
Family life process
Healing beliefs and practices
Art and expressive forms
The 12 aspects of culture or ethnicity
the written or oral history that refers to the account of a particular groups collective expeirence in geographic place and time. the time period and conditions under which groups immigrated and migrated are significant when we consider that these factors influence their subsequent opportunities
Social status factors
Refers to ones social position or "class" in societys heirarchy based on education, occupation, and income this aspect of culture hinges on the nature of economic, political, and educational institutions of the society
Social group interaction patterns
are the social relations within and between groups, although group boundaries are in reality fuzzy and changing as a result of political-economic factors.
are among members within the same group. these relations are influenced by age, gender, color, religion, education, socioeconomic background, sexual orientation, language or dialect spoken, culture change (acculturation process). Ex. When a child has to be the spokesperson for their parent because they speak better english that the parent does.
are among members of different groups. Social status and political economic power is realevant here.
are the deep subjective ideals and standards by which memebers of a culture judge their personal actions and those of others. Individualism, competition, and consumerism are three values common to the US mainstream national culture.
Language and communication
are composed of two components, verbal and nonverbal
includes the verbal categories and language structure (grammer and syntax) for the perception of reality and for communication among humans.
refers to everything else that conveys meaning but primarily remains unconscious. tone of voice, gestures, facial expressions, touching, body smell, and time orientation are aspects of communication that convey meaning directly without the usage of words.
Family life process
encompass gender, family, and occupational goals. Gender roles become and essential part of this aspect of culture in considering the spoken and unspoken rules for male and female behavior that vary greatly among the different cultures of the world. Also occupation, education, marriage customs, divorce, and parenting beliefs and practice are included here.
term for father mother and children living in the same house hold.
refers to a mix of relatives under the same roof
Augmented family and recombined families
terms to describe households in which one or both parents were previously divorced or widowed.
Healing beliefs and practices
refers to assumptions, attitudes, beliefs, and practices people process regarding health, their bodies, determinants of disease, pain, death, and health practices and practioners.
corresponds to the myraid spiritual beliefs and practices of human cultures. Has been a source of intergroup conflict for hundreds of years.
Art and expressive forms
Involves the creative use of imagination in interpreting, understanding, and enjoying life. These forms include visual art, myths, rituals, stories, proverbs, poetrys, ballads, legends, music, and performance art.
Are the preferred foods eaten by groups and their members. To many people, this aspect of culture is a quality of life issue
Refers to pastimes, activities, and sports for leisure and enjoyment.
Are the types, styles, and extent of body coverings.
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