159 terms

Environmental science Final

Test 2
Industrial Chemicals
The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulates _____.
True or False: The U.S. Geographical Survey found that 80% of U.S. streams contain at least trace amounts of over 80 waste-water contaminants.
_____ is/are known to have (a) short persistence time(s).
Transport of airborne toxicants, a specific problem in agricultural environments, is called pesticide _____.
Gonadal abnormalities, male feminization, low birth rates.
Studies of endocrine disruptions have shown that they are associated with ______.
Endocrine disruptions.
The worldwide drop in sperm counts among men has been attributed to _____.
Not reviewed before being sold
Chemicals used in cosmetics in the United States are _____.
True or False: Worldwide, bird flu, SARS and AIDS represent the three leading causes of death by infectious disease.
True or False: In the United States, home accidents represent more risk than airplane accidents.
Concentrations of methyl mercury are higher in large fish relative to concentration in the air. This is best described as _____.
True or False: Breakdown products of toxic compounds always are non-toxic and biodegradable.
Pesticide toxicity
Rachel Carson's book "Silent Spring" primarily focuses on the environmental problems associated with _____.
True or False: Synthetic pesticides have been found in high concentrations in uninhabited polar regional.
Innocent until-proven guilty approach
Prior to 2005, no rules regulating mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants existed in the United States. This represents the _____.
There is a long lag time between exposure to the agent and disease
Carcinogens may be difficult to identify because _____.
Indoor Pollutants
Radon, cigarette smoke, asbestos, and lead all have in common that they are all _____.
Toxicants that cause harm by affecting the immune system include _____.
Often have effects that are manipulative
Synergistic effects of toxicants
Type of sedimentary rock formed from physically eroded material.
True or False: The 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act forbids mining on publicly owned lands that have intact ecosystems.
Surface strip mining and mountaintop removal
Which mining creates the greatest environmental damage?
Placer mining
_____ is a type of mining method used by the exploited coltan miners of Congo.
Precious metals and gems
What materials are mined using placer mining?
The reaction of newly exposed sulfur-containing rocks with oxygen and water to produce sulfuric acid.
Acid drainage from mines is caused by _____?
Rock that has undergone heat or pressure that causes it to change form is called _____.
Non-renewable and limited in supply
Mineral Resources are _____.
True or False: All landmasses were once joined together in a super-continent called Pangaea.
High concentration layers of a material are close to the surface
Strip mining is used when _____.
All of these can be explained by the interaction of crustal plates
The boundaries between the crustal plates can be used to explain _____.
Any U.S citizen(s) to stake and patent a claim and keep all minerals benefits from him (them) selves.
The General Mining Act of 1872 permitted _____.
The structural sphere of Earth best described as the rocks and sediment is the _____.
Drilling for geothermal power has increased the number of volcanic eruption
Our choices have led to increased damage from natural disasters. Which of these has not?
Pyroclastic flow
Rapidly moving, descending and sometimes fatal mass of toxic gases, ash, and rock fragments accompanying a volcanic eruption are known as _____.
Subsurface mining
Which mining technique is the most dangerous to miners?
Occurs when denser ocean crusts slide beneath lighter continental crusts
The process of subduction _____.
Crust - Mantle - Core
Which of the following is in correct order for the shallowest to deepest regions of Earth's structural?
_____ is the controversial name proposed in 2008 for the contemporary geological horizon that shows the effects of human impact on the surface of the planet.
True or False: Coal is commonly extracted by strip mining.
All mine contracts have required the mining company to restore the mined area to premining conditions once the mine is closed.
Which of the following statements about the laws that govern mining on public land in the United States is false?
Removing large debris and allowing suspended solids to settle
In a municipal water treatment plant, the primary treatment step consists of _____.
It drained the Aral Sea and increased the salt content of soils
Why was the irrigation of Soviet cotton farming operations a problem?
Data indicates that the present rate of freshwater consumption in most developed countries is _____.
A region of low-lying land that is periodically flooded when a river overflows
Which of the following best describes floodplains?
Refers to the capture of animals not meant to be caught
By-catch _____.
Avoid using chemical fertilizers in the pond's watershed
You want to maintain a healthy pond at your school site. Last year another pond became eutrophic, to avoid that, you want to _____.
True or False: Into the mid-20th century, it was common for U.S. coastal cities to dump trash into the ocean.
Decreased in the last 30 years in places such as the Great Lakes
Water pollution in the United States has _____.
Will probably continue because aging dams are reviewed periodically for safety
Dam removal in the country _____.
Occur mostly in temperate coastal areas
Salt marshes _____.
Are "no-take" areas in the oceans
Marine Reserves _____.
True or False: Only 5% of Earth's human population relies directly on groundwater for its needs.
True or False: Sea Urchins, limpets, barnacles, sea stars and crabs are all common species in fresh water ponds.
Kill pathogenic organisms
The use of chlorine of UV radiation in wastewater treatment plants serves to _____.
Permanent wetlands
Which of the following best describes the initial ecological consequences of falling water tables?
A small scale method of treating wastewater
A septic system is _____.
washing dishes by hand
Which of the following will not contribute to water conservation?
True or False: The World Commission on Water in 1999 concluded that over half of the world's major rivers are depleted.
May take variety of pathways in the hydrologic cycle
Precipitation that falls on Earth's surface _____.
When a water-bearing layer is trapped between two layers that are less permeable
An artesian aquifier occurs _____.
True or False: The Majority of the oil polluting our oceans is from large spills.
Used as fertilizer in the United States
Much of the "biosolids" material that is the end product of a water treatment plant is _____.
Warm, moisture-laden air rushing into low pressure areas over warm tropical oceans can generate _____.
Which of the following contributes to photochemical smog?
Burning of fossil fuels
Industrial smog forms on cool, wet days and is caused by _____.
True or False: Indoor air pollution has the greatest impact on the developing world.
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
_____ is an EPA criteria pollutant that results from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. It harms health by preventing hemoglobin from binding to oxygen.
Concentrations of _____ have been reduced as a result of the Montreal Protocol.
Formed on hot, sunny days from pollutants often generated by automobiles
Photochemical smog is _____.
Furniture, foam insulation, pressed/laminated wood and carpets are all potential sources of _____.
Temperature inversion
_____ can trap air pollution in one place for many days.
The pattern of atmospheric conditions found across a relatively large geographic region over a long period is _____.
The Earth's ozone layer that limits damaging solar radiation striking the planet is found in the ______.
Indoor air pollutants
Radon, asbestos, formaldehyde, chloroform, and mold spores are all _____.
Experienced industrial smog that killed 12,000 people
In 1952, London _____.
True or False: Lead is banned worldwide as a gasoline additive.
Specific spots, such as a factory's smokestacks, where large quantities of pollution are discharged
Point sources of air pollution are _____.
Total emissions of the six have declined more than 50% since 1970
The EPA tracks six criteria air pollutants. Which of the following statements about the criteria air pollutants and efforts to control them is true?
Are installed in smoke stacks to reduce acid deposition
Scrubbers _____.
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants
The Ozone is largely a consequence of the use of _____.
True or False: Carbon dioxide is one of the six major pollutants monitored by the EPA under the auspices of the Clean Air Act.
True or False: Removal of forests reduces the Earth's ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Close to _____ of U.S. residents live in coastal areas.
Are changes in the Earth's rotation and orbit around the sun that affect climate
Miankovitch cycles _____.
_____ concentrations have increased the most since 1750.
Mayors of 720 cities signed an agreement to achieve the same reductions as the Kyoto protocol
How has the United States addressed global climate change?
True or False: According to data released in 2008, Canada and the U.S. have achieved the greenhouse gas reductions set by the Kyoto protocol.
Electricity generation
In the United States, the two main sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide are transportation and _____.
A cap is placed on the total allowed carbon emissions, and right to emit carbon can be traded (or bought and sold)
How would a cap-and-trade program help cut carbon emissions?
An increase in Earth's average surface temperature
The greenhouse effect is defined as _____.
True or False: A university or city that achieves carbon neutrality emits no net carbon dioxide.
Is an international panel that concluded that climate change has influenced biomes and economics
Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change _____.
Electricity generation; Transportation
The largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the United States is _____, followed by _____.
True or False: Major volcanic eruptions and the aerosols they release contribute to short-term warming of Earth's climate.
Convert 500 natural gas burning electrical generations plants to coal
All of the following would be effective strategies to reduce the rate of global climate change except _____.
Lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used to postpone measures to prevent environmental degradation
In legislation, the precautionary principle states that _____.
Kyoto is to carbon dioxide as Montreal is to _____.
Aerosols (particularly sulfur compounds) and dusts
A substance that contributes to atmospheric cooling is _____.
Developed countries created the current problems, so they should make the sacrifices necessary to clean them up.
What is the justification that the proponents of the Koyoto Protocol offer for developing countries having requirements different from those of developed countries?
HFC-23 (a hydrochlorofluorocarbon)
Which greenhouse gas traps the most heat per molecule?
El Nino
The exceptionally strong warning of the eastern Pacific Ocean is referred to as _____.
Increased sales of SUVs and truck. and increased speed limits
Two of the reasons for the lack of improvement in fuel efficiency (mpg) in the U.S. over the past 30 years include _____.
Can be improved as individuals, prodded by economic necessity, make conscious choices to reduce personal consumption
Energy conservation in the United States _____.
Fossil fuel energy
Which of the following energy sources is considered nonrenewable?
Before mining techniques improved in the 1700s, the energy resource that was most used for heating and cooking was _____.
Either biogenic or thermogenic
Natural gas is _____.
Transforming fissionable isotopes by addition or subtraction of neutrons
Atomic energy in power plants is created via _____.
True or False: As of 2008, the top six nations in oil reserves are all in the Middle East.
The greatest environmental impact is increased greenhouse gases
When we burn fossil fuels _____.
The country has such large reserves of coal
Coal continues to be used in the United States, This is partially because _____.
True or False: There are some energy sources that can be either renewable or nonrenewable, depending on the manner and rate at which we use them.
Burning coal releases sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
How does the burning of coal contribute to acid rain?
A prediction, based on rates of extraction and new discovery, of when a country's or global oil production will be at a maximum and then start to fail
Hubbert's peak is _____.
Slightly decreased
Between 1987-2008, the average miles per gallon of U.S. vehicles has _____.
True or False: At present China is both the leading producer and consumer of coal, followed by the U.S. in second place.
True or False: Although fossil fuels are a nonrenewable source of energy, the energy they contain originally came from a renewable source.
Water in the containment vessel is kept under high pressure, and heat from the fission reactions heat the water to well that turns a turbine that drives a generator and makes electricity.
Where does the energy generated by nuclear fission go in the process of making electricity?
Seismic surveying
Scientists search for fossil fuels in many ways. Sending a sound wave into the ground (by exploding dynamite, thumping the ground with a large weight, or using an electric vibrating machine) and measuring it return to the surface at receiving stations is called _____.
True or False: At present, the U.S. produces slightly more oil than it consumes.
Russia and the United States
Deposits of natural gas are most numerous in _____.
The expense of extracting and processing them has been too high
Oil shale and oil sands have only recently begun to be exploited as a source of petroleum because _____.
True or False: Renewable energy sources have received far less in subsidies, tax breaks, and other incentives from governments than have conventional sources.
It can be made from the nonfood portions of plants and from wood
How is cellulosic ethanol different from traditional corn-based ethanol?
The price of corn and of corn-based foods has greatly increased
One of the socio-economic drawbacks to producing large-scale ethanol from corn is _____.
The fastest growing source of electricity generations using renewable resources is _____.
True or False: In the net measuring system, homeowners who generate electricity with photocells sell the excess to the power company and receive credit for the power donated
Which of the following countries is not a top consumer of hydropower?
Almost all rivers that can be dammed for power generation have been dammed
Why is no growth expected for hydropower?
Building a house so that sunlight can get in through large windows in the winter but is blocked during the summer
An example of passive solar energy use is _____.
Produces little air pollution
Hydropower generated through dams _____.
The second fastest growing new renewable energy source is _____.
Wind turbines
Which of the following currently produce(s) 23 times as much energy as it consumes?
Which renewable enrgy source is the most used worldwide?
Includes charcoal and manure from domestic animals
Biomass _____.
It is the only one not based on the energy of the sun
How is geothermal power different from the other commercially used forms of renewable energy?
It is a renewable resource if managed correctly
Which of the following is characteristic of combustion of biomass for energy production?
Has the greatest potential for generation in Texas and California
In the United States, wind power _____.
True or False: Today's economies are powered by fossil fuels, with four-fifths of all primary energy coming from oil, coal, and natural gas.
True or False: The sun's raw energy is so strong that if only 0.1% of Earth's surface were covered with solar panels, we would have enough solar energy to power all the world's electrical plants.
True or False: Waste generation has more than doubled in the United States since 1960.
Lead, cadmium, mercury
Which of the following are classified as heavy metals?
True or False: Current waste practices in the United States include the greatest proportions of trash being landfilled, with lesser amounts being incinerated, recycled, and composted.
Bring your own coffee cup to coffee breaks of cafes
Which of the following represents a strategy of reuse?
purchasing items made from recycles matericals
Closing the recycling loop refers to _____.
True or False: People in developing nations presently generate more waste per capital than people in developed nations.
E-wastes: cellphones, computer components
The most recent category of hazardous watse showing up increasingly in landfills and containing heavy metals are/is _____.
Solid waste produced from incinerators is less toxic than landfill waste
Incineration has all of the following benefits over landfilling EXCEPT _____.
True or False: Most municipal solid waste comes from packaging and disposable goods.
True or False: People in developing nations presently generate more waste per capita than people in developed nations.
Used to store and concentrate dilute liquid hazardous waste before it is moved to permanent disposal option
A surface impoundment is _____.
Which of the following characteristics is NOT a part of the EPA's definition of hazardous waste?
Seeks to redesign industrial systems to minimize physical inefficiency while maximizing ecomonic
Industrial ecologist _____.
True or False: Since the late 1980s, the number of landfills in the United States has doubled.
The average resident in the United States generates more than __ pound(s) of trash per day.
Paint, water pipes, batteries, e-wastes
Which of the following are sources of heavy metals in the environment?
Lined with plastic and clay
To safeguard against groundwater contamination, sanitary landfills are _____.
Superfund site
An abandoned waste site that poses a direct threat to health and the environment and is designated to have U.S. government funds applied to it cleanup is a _____.
All movement of a hazardous material, from when it leaves the factory until it is safely disposed of in an approved facility, must be reported to EPA.
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requires the "from cradle to grave" tacking of hazardous wastes. What does that mean?
Recycling aluminum cans saves __% of the energy needed to make the same amount of aluminum from virgin bauxite.
To clean up old and abandoned hazardous waste sites that pose a threat to the public or environment
One of the programs under the Compensation Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) is Superfund. What is the task of Superfund?