LAW vocabulary

civil law
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Terms in this set (41)
cruel and unusual punishmenttorture, deliberately degrading punishment, or punishment that is too severe for the crime committedmisdemeanora criminal offense more serious than an infraction and less serious than a felonyfelonyis still widely applied, the federal government defines a felony as a crime punishable by death or imprisonment in excess of one yearplaintiffis the person or group who is accusing another person or group of some wrongdoingdefendantdefendant is any person charged of committing an offensecomplaintA formal notice that a lawsuit is being broughtSummonsA notice directing someone to appear in court to answer a complaint or a chargeResponseTo answer or reactPleadinga formal statement of the cause of an action or defense.Settlementan official agreement intended to resolve a dispute or conflict.Triala formal examination of evidence before a judge, and typically before a jury, in order to decide guilt in a case of criminal or civil proceedings.Verdicta decision on a disputed issue in a civil or criminal case or an inquestProsecutionParty who starts the legal proceedings against another party for a violation of the lawDefensethe case presented by or on behalf of the party being accused or sued in a lawsuit.Penal codeA states written criminal lawsPreliminary hearingComing before the main part or itemArraignmentthe action of arraigning someone in court.TestimonyA formal written or spoken statement, especially one given in a court of law.Cross examination: the examination of a witness who has already testified in order to check or discredit the witness's testimony, knowledge, or credibility — compare direct examinationacquittala judgment that a person is not guilty of the crime with which the person has been chargedsentencingdeclare the punishment decided for an offenderadversary systemone's opponent in a contest, conflict, or punishmentthe legally authorized killing of someone as punishment for a crimehung jury. A jury that is unable to reach a verdict of guilty or not guilty. The result is a mistrial, and legal proceedings must be reinitiated to bring the case to trial again. Trying the case a second time does not constitute double jeopardy.meditation/ arbitrationintervention in a dispute in order to resolve it; arbitration.parole/probationthe release of a prisoner temporarily or permanently before the completion of a sentence, on the promise of good behavior.perjuryLying under oathsubpoenaa writ ordering a person to attend a court.precedentan example that may serve as a basis for imitation or later actionStare DecisisA common law doctrine under which judges are obligated to follow the precedents established in prior decisionsJudicial ReviewAllows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws