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Terms in this set (41)
the system of law concerned with private relations between members of a community rather than criminal, military, or religious affairs
a system of law concerned with the punishment of those who commit crimes.
refers to rights carved out in the federal and state constitutions.
the body of law that regulates the operation and procedures of government agencies
the part of English law that is derived from custom and judicial precedent rather than statutes. Often contrasted with statutory law.
legal document authorizing a police officer or other official to enter and search premises
an old-fashioned name for the jury thst hears a lawsuit or criminal prosecution
fair and speedy trial
arises only after the government has formally accused that person of a crime, either by arresting or indicting the person.
the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation
an arrangement between a prosecutor and a defendant whereby the defendant pleads guilty to a lesser charge in the expectation of leniency.
cruel and unusual punishment
torture, deliberately degrading punishment, or punishment that is too severe for the crime committed
a criminal offense more serious than an infraction and less serious than a felony
is still widely applied, the federal government defines a felony as a crime punishable by death or imprisonment in excess of one year
is the person or group who is accusing another person or group of some wrongdoing
defendant is any person charged of committing an offense
A formal notice that a lawsuit is being brought
A notice directing someone to appear in court to answer a complaint or a charge
To answer or react
a formal statement of the cause of an action or defense.
an official agreement intended to resolve a dispute or conflict.
a formal examination of evidence before a judge, and typically before a jury, in order to decide guilt in a case of criminal or civil proceedings.
a decision on a disputed issue in a civil or criminal case or an inquest
Party who starts the legal proceedings against another party for a violation of the law
the case presented by or on behalf of the party being accused or sued in a lawsuit.
A states written criminal laws
Coming before the main part or item
the action of arraigning someone in court.
A formal written or spoken statement, especially one given in a court of law.
: the examination of a witness who has already testified in order to check or discredit the witness's testimony, knowledge, or credibility — compare direct examination
a judgment that a person is not guilty of the crime with which the person has been charged
declare the punishment decided for an offender
one's opponent in a contest, conflict, or dispute.
the legally authorized killing of someone as punishment for a crime
. A jury that is unable to reach a verdict of guilty or not guilty. The result is a mistrial, and legal proceedings must be reinitiated to bring the case to trial again. Trying the case a second time does not constitute double jeopardy.
intervention in a dispute in order to resolve it; arbitration.
the release of a prisoner temporarily or permanently before the completion of a sentence, on the promise of good behavior.
Lying under oath
a writ ordering a person to attend a court.
an example that may serve as a basis for imitation or later action
A common law doctrine under which judges are obligated to follow the precedents established in prior decisions
Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws
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