CLEP: Western Civilization II - Chapter 13

Western Culture and Politics since 1945
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Boris Yeltsin
First President of the Russian Republic (r. 1991-2000). Helped end the USSR and forced Gorbachev to resign; completely broke with communism and stopped a communist takeover.
Vladimir Putin
Succesor of Yeltsin, second President of Russia in 2000; launched reforms aimed at boosting growth and budget revenues and keeping Russia on a strong economic track.
Taliban
a group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996
Osama bin Laden
(b. 1957) Arab terrorist who established Al-Qaeda; planned attack of 9-11
Al Qaeda
A network of Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden, that carried out the attacks on the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001.
Operation Desert Storm
(1991) The United States and its allies defeated Iraq in a ground war that lasted 100 hours.
Saddam Hussein
As president of Iraq, Saddam maintained power through the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) and the first Persian Gulf War (1991). During these conflicts, Saddam repressed movements he deemed threatening to the stability of Iraq, particularly Shi'a and Kurdish movements seeking to overthrow the government or gain independence, respectively. While he remained a popular hero among many disaffected Arabs everywhere for standing up to the West and for his support for the Palestinians, U.S. leaders continued to view Saddam with deep suspicion following the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Saddam was deposed by the U.S. and its allies during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Marshal Tito
(1892-1980) Communist chief of Yugoslavia who proclaimed independence of his country from Soviet influence.
1990
Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence from Yugoslavia in what year?
ethnic cleansing
the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area
Slobodam Milosevic
Serbian president who tried to create a greater Serbia by taking land from other republics and by uniting all Serbs. He wasn't able to accomplish his goal, but was able to take 30 percent of Croatia.
Dayton Accord
On Nov. 21, 1995, after 21 days of intensive negotiations at an American Air Force base in Dayton, Ohio, the three Bosnian leaders initialed a peace agreement and 11 annexes to try to bring an end to nearly four years of terror and killing in the former Yugoslavia. About 250,000 people died and another 2.7 million were turned into refugees.
Gamal Abdal Nasser
(1918-1970) Egyptian leader; first true Egyptian to rule Egypt since 6th century; called for help after British gave up on Egypt's government; led a coup; instigated the 1956 Suez War (ended with the UN influenced seizure of the Suez Canal by Egypt).
Falklands War
(1982) when Argentina attempted to take control of the Falkland Islands (one of Britain's few remaining colonial outposts) 300 miles off its coast, the British successfully rebuked the Argentines. What was this war called?
Charles de Gaulle
(1890-1970) Leader of the Free-French during WWII
existentialism
The idea that human beings simply exist, have no higher purpose, and must exist and choose their actions for themselves; Mainly influenced by Nietzsche.
Albert Camus
(1913-1960) Existentialist writer; influenced young people. Was the leading French existentialist; he became extremely influential, and joined the French resistance. Him and Sartre offered powerful answers to moral issues and the contemporary crisis.
Jean-Paul Sarte
(1905-1980) Existentialist writer; influenced young people. Existential philosopher, novelist, playwright; denied God's existence and verifiable moral codes; argued that humans are "condemned to be free"; "The Flies", "No Exit", "Dirty Hands"
postmodernism
Post-World War II intellectual movement and cultural attitude focusing on cultural pluralism and release from the confines and ideology of Western high culture.
Rachel Carson
(1907-1964) ~ Silent Spring (1962); launched global environment movement, United States biologist remembered for her opposition to the use of pesticides that were hazardous to wildlife (1907-1964)
Green parties
These parties were formed to promote environmental protection
1986
What year did the accident at nuclear plant at Chernobyl in UK occur?
New Left
(1950's-60's) socialist/Marxist/anti-authoritarianism group
Simone de Beauvoir
(1908-1986) French feminist. Wrote the "Second Sex" (1949)
Second Vatican Council
A national worldwide leadership council from 1962 to 1965 that brought tremendous changes to the catholic church
1960's
In what years did mass immigration to European countries from former colonies occur?
Treaty of Rome
(1957) This treaty established the EEC - European Economic Community (also called Common Market)
European Economic Community
(Also called Common Market) 1957, An international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Treaty of Maastricht
(1992) European nations agreed to make an economic and political integration with a common currency, passport, and banking system; Established structure and cooperation in immigration and law enforcement; This treaty led to the creation of the European Union.
European Union
An organization whose goal is to unite Europe so that goods, services, and workers can move freely among member countries.
Establishment of Israel as a nation
What did Zionism (A movement for (originally) the reestablishment and (now) the development and protection of a Jewish nation) lead to in 1948?
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