50 terms

Soca 105

Final Exam
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Which is NOT a reason that archaeology, of all the subfields of anthropology, is the most distinct?
a. it is the oldest formal specialty
*b. it is essentially the popular activity of art collecting
c. it involves special problems of collection and analysis
d. it involves a specialized set of skills and techniques
Historical archaeology refers to the study of:
a. the science of history
b. societies with no written records
*c. begins with the beginning of written history in the region under investigation
d. very recent societies
Prehistoric Archaeology is concerned with archaeological investigations of societies that existed prior to the beginning of written history. As a result:
a. Prehistoric archaeology depends exclusively on the interpretation of excavated objects and their uses to develop theories about how ancient people lived.
b. Artifacts uncovered during an excavation and the corresponding data collected are nonrenewable cultural resources
c. Excavations must be undertaken with great care, making sure as much data as possible is recorded about the site and recorded accurately. If data is recorded incorrectly or incompletely it is of little historical value.
*d. All of the above
4. When we interpret some archaeological data by observing similar artifacts in use among living cultures, we call it:
a. the ethnographic present
b. cultural relativity
c. ethnocentrism
*d. ethnographic analogy
5. Which best describes the overall goal of archaeology?
a. to reconstruct ancient events like the battle at Maiden Castle
b. to collect and display ancient artifacts and art objects
*c. the reconstruction of past cultural systems
d. to study prehistoric rocks and fossils
Test pits are used to:
a. locate graves
*b. determine if a potential site is a site and to decide exactly where to dig
c. recover the artifacts from a site
d. spread out the excavators so they do the least damage
In terms of anthropological value, the single most important aspect of an archaeological dig is:
a. making sure to recover all the artifacts
*b. complete and accurate record-keeping
c. establishing an accurate grid system
d. cleaning and preserving the artifacts
8. Which of the following is used to establish horizontal control at a site?
*a. a grid system
b. natural stratigraphy of the soil
c. techniques of statistical sampling
d. digging down in layers of only a few centimeters at a time
Non-removable artifacts, such as, hearts, pits, & walls are referred to by archaeologists as?
a. Fossils
b. Middens
c. Strata
*d. Features
An artifact is defined as?
a. A fossil
*b. An object made or modified by humans
c. Anything found at an archaeological site
d. Any object that provides ecofacts
Modern archaeologists' most fundamental desires are to?
a. Find objects for archaeological museums
b. Fund research by selling ancient treasures
*c. Understand the human past
d. Continue the tradition of romance and adventure in exotic places
Historical archaeologists in America focus on?
*a. Immigrants who arrived in the last 500 years
b. Historical records of indigenous societies
c. Migration of the first humans on the continent
d. Physical characteristics of American Indian tribes.
The first steps taken in most archaeological excavation is to:
*a. Establish a datum & grid pattern system
b. Using heavy machinery to strip off modern vegetation and expose the archaeological deposit
c. Reassembling the archaeological site from the field notes and photographs
d. Dating artifacts and features
"Middens" are an archaeological term for:
a. Professional gatherings to exchange research results
b. Special instruments used to excavate small bones
*c. Ancient trash piles
d. Fossilized artifacts
Most of the artifacts that make up the archaeological record are
a. bones of animals that people have eaten
*b. garbage
c. the hardened remains of a skeletal structure
d. hearths
Which refers to a kind of artifact, but is differentiated because they cannot be easily removed from an archaeological site?
*a. features
b. hearths
c. garbage
d. ecofact
Pits are by far the most common
*a. features
b. hearths
c. sites
d. ecofact
What do archaeologists and paleoanthropologists usually restrict their search to?
a. features
b. hearths
*c. sites
d. artifacts
What is created when the remnants of human activity are covered or buried by some natural process?
a. features
*b. sites
c. fossils
d. culture history
What allows archaeologists to recover a full range of artifacts and other materials while only excavating a small portion of a site?
a. excavation
*b. sampling
c. remote sensing
d. conservation
The "reading" of the archaeological record is called
a. reconstruction
b. taphonomy
*c. analysis
d. conservation
What refers to the relationship between and among artifacts and other materials?
*a. context
b. formal analysis
c. culture history
d. typology
In anthropology, the term "culture" refers to
a. the care of plant and animal resources
b. the artistic heritage of any society, including painting and sculpture, music and the performing arts
c. the long-standing traditions of a particular society.
*d. all the learned behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, values and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or population
The anthropological attitude that a society's customs and ideas should be described objectively and understood in the context of that society's problems and opportunities is called
a. Enthnocentrism
*b. cultural relativism
c. humanistic
d. empathetic
The opinion that one's own way of life is natural or correct and the only true way of being fully human is _______________.
a. reflexivity
b. hermeneutics
*c. ethnocentrism
d. egocentrism
An extended period during which the anthropologist gathers data is called __________________________.
*a. fieldwork
b. interviewing
c. scientific observation
d. participant observation
A society's techniques for acquiring food resources it its:
a. Shopping habits
b. Economy
*c. Subsistence Pattern
d. Market System
Science is:
a. a way of collecting facts
b. the methodology used in laboratory research
*c. a method of inquiry
d. only concerned with concrete things like gravity and chemicals
In science, a proposed explanation for some natural phenomenon is called a(n):
*a. hypothesis
b. observation
c. experiment
d. theory
To refer to something as a theory means that it:
a. is just a guess
b. has yet to be proved
*c. has been well supported by scientific testing
d. is probably not scientific
A unique research strategy of anthropologists which involves learning the language and culture of a group by participating in the group's daily activities is called
A. assimilation
B. holistic interaction
C. ethnography
*D. participant observation
The systematic study of the material remains of human behavior in the past is conducted by:
A. ethnologists
*B. archaeologists
C. forensic anthropologists
D. anthropological linguists
The portable material products of former societies are known as:
*A. artifacts
B. fossils
C. ecofacts
D. antiquaries
_____ dating techniques place artifacts and sites in a general chronological order, though the exact date can be often unknown.
A. Chronometric
B. Potassium-Argon
C. Relative
*D. Archaeolgical
The context of an artifact is important for an archaeologist to know because:
*A. context can reveal valuable information about the artifact's use, age, and relationship to other artifacts and features
B. archaeologists are jealous of collectors and museums
C. written descriptions of artifacts are always biased and incorrect
D. objects by themselves cannot be preserved as objects if they are taken out of their archaeological context
Which of the following is not a Hollywood stereotype of archaeologists?
A. Archaeologists almost always work in dangerous, tropical places
B. Archaeologists wear hats, leather jackets, and khakis
*C. Archaeologists are trained professionals who try to reconstruct human behavior in the past
D. Archaeologists are only interested in artifacts as objects for museums
Although most anthropologists agree on where Native Americans originated, they disagree about:
A. whether the first populations were hunter-gatherers or farmers
*B. when the population migrations actually took place
C. the particular subspecies (archaic or modern Homo sapiens)
D. the types of boats or canoes that would have been utilized
The site of Meadowcroft Rock Shelter has provided evidence to suggest that:
A. hunters were using Clovis-style tools to hunt mammoths
*B. people were living in what is now the eastern US (near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) earlier than the well-dated "Clovis" people lived in North America
C. Native Americans are closely related to Australian aborigines
D. cave painting was not restricted to sites in western Europe
The durable aspects of culture such as tools, structures, and art are known as _______________.
a. fossils
b. artifacts
*c. material culture
d. prehistory
Because it is something someone made, archaeologists like to say that a(n) _______________ is a product of human behavior.
a. article
*b. artifact
c. act
d. item
e. fossil
The purpose of a grid system is _______________.
*a. to record the exact location of an artifact accurately, both horizontally and vertically
b. to tell relic collectors where to find artifacts to sell to private collections
c. to provide electricity to primitive villages
d. to cook bacon
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. The archaeologist is usually thought of as someone who finds catalogs material objects such as coins, arrowheads, and potsherds.
b. The end result of archaeological research is to interpret artifacts as material expressions of the ideas of a past culture and to try to reconstruct that culture to add to our understanding of human behavior.
c. The end result of archaeological research is to contribute to the reconstruction of past human civilization
*d. none of the above is incorrect (all are correct)
A place that indicates the presence of human occupants in the past (for example, evidence of a temporary hunting camp or more permanent village) is called an archaeological _______________.
a. grid system
b. datum point
c. stratigraphic analysis
*d. site
A system for recording the excavation of artifacts in which the excavation area is divided into squares and the contents of each square are carefully recorded is called _______________.
a. flotation
b. stratification
c. a datum point
*d. a grid system
Archaeologists get clues about how an artifact was used by _______________.
a. coating it with latex
b. dissolving it with chemicals
c. removing it from its context to look at it without interference from misleading clues
*d. analyzing its shape and signs of wear and tear
Which of the following is not true of science?
a. It is empirical.
b. It is systematic and explicit.
*c. It always provides the right answer to a question.
d. It is self-critical, always trying to prove itself wrong.
It is essential that archaeologists take abundant, accurate, and detailed field notes during excavations because:
*a. Archaeology destroys data as it is gathered; once a site is excavated it cannot be re-excavated.
b. Federal legislation mandates abundant, accurate, and detailed field notes.
c. Archaeology students generally learn field techniques from these notes.
d. None of the above; it is not essential because archaeologists can always go back and reconstruct the excavation later.
A test excavation would be most appropriate in which of the following situations?
a. When determining whether or not field school students understand archaeological field methods.
*b. When trying to determine a site's potential for answering a research question.
c. When a research question must be answered with a limited amount of time and money.
d. When a researcher is already knows what to expect during excavations.
49. When archaeologists dig excavation units, they are concerned with:
a. Horizontal provenience.
b. Vertical provenience.
c. Keeping the walls of the unit straight and perpendicular.
*d. All of the above.
Why do archaeologists use a datum point rather than simply measuring from the ground surface?
*a. The datum point provides a universal reference point that can be used across any archaeological site, allowing archaeologists to easily compare data between excavations.
b. While vertical provenience could easily be measured from the ground surface, obtaining accurate horizontal provenience would be much more difficult without a datum point.
c. The ground surface does not have the same elevation consistently across a site while a datum point provides a fixed reference.
d. Use of a datum point is an archaeological tradition established in the early 20th century; while it serves no useful purpose, it is an example of how outdated excavation methodology is still embedded in archaeology today.