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History 202 Carver Final Exam
Terms in this set (63)
Warren G. Harding
election of 1920. Conservative republican. "Return to normalcy" by prewar and isolationism. Died from a stroke in 1923. No claim to fame really. Pres.1921 laissez-faire, little regard for gov't or presidency. "return to normalcy" after Wilson + his progressive ideals. Office became corrupt: allowed drinking in prohibition, had an affair, surrounded himself w/ cronies (used office for private gain). Ex) Sec. of Interior leased gov't land w/ oil for $500,000 and took money himself. Died after 3 years in office, VP: Coolidge took over. Though his term in office was fraught with scandal, including Teapot Dome (the secret leasing of federal oil reserves by the secretary of the interior), Harding embraced technology and was sensitive to the plights of minorities and women.
The Ku Klux Klan
some bad mother****ers. Shit heads. All of them. Showed back up in 1915 in new chapters in the MidWest. Now also targeted Jews and Catholics. reaction to changing society, Americanism, new targets, national movements, rural popularity, native white protestants, 5 mil by mid-1920's, fraternal aspects, political activities
prewar state of calm and isolationism
assumed presidency after Harding died bcuz he was the vice prez.Keep cool with coolidge" Pro business president (1923-1929) Restored honesty to the government and accelerated tax cutting and anti regulation policies of his predecessor. Short spoken. Wanted to fuse business and government, hoping for American industry to grow.
rejected the idea that African Americans will coexist with Whites peacefully. Proposed the establishment of an African nation. Encouraged formation of black nationalism and rejected integration. Created United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) Garvey advocated for African Americans starting their own businesses in order to be respected and Black Nationalism. Prominent intellectual leader during the Harlem Renaissance and believer in Pan-Africanism.
america's birth control advocate of the early 1900's. Founded American Birth Control League in 1921. Is now Planned Parenthood. Believed in informing the lower class about how the feeble minded and African Americans should be sterilized. Sanger felt that children were suffering (mostly due to overpopulation).
election of 1928. Did nothing to help falling economy because he thought it would fix itself. Was wrong and become an embarrassing president. Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in 1929. Promised the American people prosperity and attempted to deal with the Great Depression by restoring public faith in the community. Many begin to blame Hoover for the Depression and even called the roadside villages "Hoovervilles". The "Hoover Flag" was a symbol for empty pockets.
The "Bonus Marchers"
group of farmers and veterans and others who were disappointed by the lack of attention they needed because the economy was declining. They marched to Washington D.C. and set up Hooverville as a way to protest. In the spring of 1932, 20,000 unemployed World War I veterans descended on Washington to demand early payment of a bonus due in 1945, Herbert Hoover ordered the army to clear them out. Police came in July, two marchers were killed.
1929-1939. Crashing of the US stock market. Millions lost their jobs, banks and businesses closed. World trade declined. Black Tuesday (crash). By 1933 more than 13 million Americans were out of work.
Franklin D Roosevelt
1932 election. Wanted to bring America out of the depression by proposing his New Deal. President of the US during WW2 and established new deal policies to fight the great depression. Pretty badass. Established the SEC, Social Security. In charge during Pearl Harbor. GI Bill of Rights. Overcame polio. Tennessee Valley Authority. Civilian Conservation Corps. Repealed prohibition. NEW DEAL.
FDR. uses deficit spending to fund it. A risk to end the depression by creating new jobs. FDR's series of liberal economic laws to combat the great depression. Included social security, minimum wages, etc. Established the democrats as the liberal party.
The Civilian Conservation Corps
FDR created during the first 100 days in office (First New Deal). Jobs for 18-25 year old men to stay out of trouble with the law. Would not interfere with current workforce. Construct pathways, lodges, national parks. Send $25 home to families each paycheck.
The National Recovery Association
result of the public works act. Helping industrial firms have a stability through depression. Reduce overproduction and overpricing, set wages, safe work environment. Wasn't successful and died out quickly.
The Tennessee Vally Authority
construction of dams and hydroelectric plants through 7 states. Very successful. A relief program created by FDR. Gave 2.5MM poor citizens jobs and land. Brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, and restored eroded soil.
The Lend-Lease Act
(FDR)US helping out Great Britain while there were being attacked by Germany during WW2. US send, lend, lease military armaments and security to any nation that needed help if it would help US national security. First step into taking the US into WW2
Pearl Harbor Attack
Japan attacked US because they wanted the US to lift its trade sanctions so Japan could get more oil, but the US refused. So Japan neutralized US naval military by air strike on Dec 7, 1941. Hit all ships and aircraft.
"Germany - First"
adopted by the US, plans to attack and take down Germany first. Germany had a stronger defense than Japan could build, strategy aligned with Allies, reason to believe Germans were building an atomic weapon.
The Coral Sea and Midway
Two critical battles that turned the war against the Japanese in favor of the Allies. Coral sea discouraged invasion of Australia. Midway destroyed four Japanese carriers.
The "Zoot Suit Riots"
During WW2 a growing number of minorities had taken jobs left by white males who went off to war. In LA in the 1940's soldiers and sailors on leave went and beat up minorities who were wearing the dress of a zoot-suit.
Roosevelt signed a document requiring all Japanese from the west coast needed to be removed. Put them into internment camps out of fear of another attack. Post Pearl Harbor.
33rd president. Led US to victory in WW2 making the ultimate decision to use atomic weapons for the first time. Shaped US foreign policy regarding the soviet union after the war. Passed the Marshall Plan (to rebuild Europe) and the Truman Doctrine to contain communism. Oversaw the berlin airlift and creation of NATO. Approved the Korean War. Founding of the UN.
Japanese suicide pilots
The Atomic Bomb
secret atomic bomb project called manhattan project. Took four years and 120,000 workers. First dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
US foreign policy adopted by Truman. US stopping the spread of communism by creating allies and helping weak countries resist soviet forces. US keep Soviet aggression away for a while. Presented by George Kennan who was stationed in Moscow who released the "Long Telegram" about what the US should do about Soviets.
The Marshal Plan
plan proposed by George Marshall that the U.S. should rebuild Europe's economy. Give Western Europe 12 billion dollars for economic development and rebuilding. Soviet Union blocked Eastern Europe from accepting the help that was offer-undermined communism
The Berlin Blockade
One of the first major crisis of the cold war. Germany was split into parts (half soviet control half not). Germany, Soviets, blocked allies road access to Berlin. Ccompletely blocked off west berlin from anything (including food) or anyone in hopes that US would stop bothering with it and leave it to Soviets. Soviets were totally wrong and US sent in food and supplies by plane to help. Blockade was lifted on May 12, 1949
NATO and The Warsaw Pact
Alliances formed post ww2. West controlled by NATO (USA, Great B, France). East controlled by Warsaw Pact (USSR, Germany, Poland). Divided in Germany by the "iron curtain".
The G.I. Bill
post war economic boom. So as to not have a repeat of the Bonus Army, Congress created benefits like government jobs, housing loans, access to govt health-care, and access to higher education for veterans of WW2. mostly beneficial to whites, not African Americans.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
The Korean War
US did not want to lose another Asian country to Communism because they wanted to stop the spread of Communism. Goes from north descending on south, to south pusing north back up, to chinese soldiers pushing U.N. (south) back to 38th parallel. After Stalin's death a peace agreement was made and kept the line drawn at the 38th parallel
Dwight D. Eisenhower
34th president. Leader of the allied forces during WW2. Commander of D-Day invasion when he was army general during ww2
Movement of upper & middle class families from urban core areas to the surrounding communities.
Interstate Highway Act
Created in 1956 that authorized 31B in funds to create 41K miles of highway connecting multiple major cities.
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor. Argued the case of Brown v Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
1954 supreme court case that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson. Determining that separate but equal is not okay. Ordered desegregation.
African-american civil rights leader. Refused to give up seat on the bus to a white passenger. Initiated the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955. Opposed Jim Crow laws.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
in 1955 after Rosa Parks was arrested. MLK led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the supreme court ruled that bus segregation was illegal.
Martin Luther King Junior
Civil Rights leader. Famous for "I have a dream" speech. Developed a nonviolent approach to social change. Assassinated
Protests by black college students (60-61). Who took seats at "whites only" tables and refused to leave unless served. Prompted the formation of the Student nonviolent coordinating committee.
A person who challenged the racial laws in the south during the 60's. Originally by refusing to abide by the laws that seating in buses be segregated by race.
John F Kennedy
An American politician who served as the 35th president of the united states. He played a major role in the cold war. His biggest thing was fighting communism. Slogan was "the New Frontier". Assassinated. 35 years old when elected into office. Was responsible for negotiations of the Cuban missile crisis, Civil Right movement, and Berlin Wall
The Cuban Missile Crisis
Also know as the October Crisis was a 13 day confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over Soviet ballistic missiles deployed in Cuba. It was the height of the cold war and has been considered the closest the cold war ever came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war. After the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion and presence of American missiles in Europe targeting the USSR, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev decided to agree to cuba's request to place missiles in Cuba to prevent further harassment. The US caught them and established a military blockade on Cuba. After a lot of negotiations, an agreement was reached. The Soviets would dismantle their weapons and return them to the USSR and the US would publicly declare never to invade Cuba without direct provocation and would remove missiles from Europe.
The Viet Kong
the name given (by Western Sources) to the National Liberation Front during the Vietnam war. The group fought the US and South Vietnamese governments. Deployed guerilla warfare. Emerged on the winning side. Responsible for the Tet Offensive.
36th president. Designed the "Great Society" legislation which upheld civil rights, public broadcasting, medicare, medicaid. War on Poverty. Escalated America's involvement in the Vietnam war. Passed the Gulf Of Tonkin resolution which granted Johnson to use military force without declaring war
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Outlawed discrimination in the US. Weak power to enforce, but supplemented in later years. Signed into Law by Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964
The Golf Of Tonkin Resolution
A US ship (Maddox) was fired on by two North Vietnamese boats. Johnson quickly proceeded to authorize retaliatory air strikes against north vietnam. Proposed and passed a resolution that would authorize him to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the US & to prevent further aggression. Led to open involvement in the Vietnam war.
The Ho Chi Minh Trail
The only truly significant target available for attack on north Vietnam. The main route for North Vietnam's shipment of troops and supplies to south Vietnam.
The Tet Offensive
A military campaign launched by the Vietcong against South Vietnam and the US. Took place during Tet (holiday). Vietcong broke a ceasefire to attack south vietnam. US & South vietnamese forces defeated the Vietcong, but the american people were shocked by the attacks
Elected president in 1968 and 1972. Representing the Republican party. Was responsible for getting the US out of Vietnam. Nixon doctrine. First president to resign due to the watergate scandal. Nixon doctrine said we would contribute to foreign wars through more allies (not troops).
Nixon's people had been bugging the DNC. They tried to burglarize the place and everyone found out. Led to nixon's resignation
The Iran Hostage Crisis
November 1979 the US embassy in Iran was stormed. 52 Americans held hostage. Iran released after 444 days.
Republican. Populist. Served as the gov. of CA. Major battle against the communists. Created the Strategic Defense initiative (Star Wars). Worked to end the cold war.
Popular term for the economic policies of Ronald Reagan which called for widespread tax cuts, decreased social spending, increased military spending, and deregulation of domestic markets.
The Strategic Defense Initiative
AKA Star Wars. A defense plan by Reagan to develop an anti-ballistic missile system to prevent any missile attacks from other countries (especially the Soviets). Never got built.
Nicaraguan communists. Reagan financed the opposing party (Contras) who lost the national election
George H. W. Bush
41st president. Oil Tycoon. Continued Reagan's policies and reaganomics.
The First Gulf War
Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. The war was the effort of about 30 nations to liberate Kuwait.
1992 and 1996; Democrat; Don't Ask Don't Tell policy implemented by Congress, Lewinsky scandal (impeached and acquitted)
George W. Bush
43rd president. Campaign toward self-sufficiency. Led war on terrorism post 9/11. Passed major tax cuts. Closest election in history versus Gore. Supreme court decision. Dick Cheney VP. Education reform with No Child left behind act.
Elaborate terrorist attack elaborated by Al Qaeda and Osama Bin Laden. Directed at the US World trade center, pentagon, and DC. Led to war on terror.
The War on Terror
Elaborate terrorist attack elaborated by Al Qaeda and Osama Bin Laden. Directed at the US World trade center, pentagon, and DC. Led to war on terror.
ailed crisis during Bush presidency. Destroyed more than 80% of New Orleans, 1300+ people died, and had over 150BB in damages. Federal Emergency Management Agency lacked the necessary resources to help.
First black president. Very progressive. Health care bill. Gulf Oil spill. Stimulus package after economic collapse of 2008.