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64 terms

cytology

Study Guide
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Anatomy
is the study of structure
Which subdivison of anatomy involves the study of organs that functions togeather?
systemic
Which of the following activities would represent a physiological study?
determining normal blood sugar levels for a 20 year old student.
Microscopic examination of a frozen tissue specimen is an application of the following disciplines?
histology
Tissue is
a group of cells with similar structure and functions.
An organisim's ability to use energy in order to swim is an example of
metabolism.
Homeostasis is defined as
the maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body.
Which of the following is consistent with homeostasis?
As body temperature rises, sweating occurs to cool the body.
A researcher discovered a new hormone that raises blood calcium levels. According to the principles of negative feedback, this hormone would be secreted when
blood calcium levels decrease.
In the anatomical position, the
palms of the hand are on the anterior surface.
Which of the following sets of directional terms are most appropriately referred to as opposites?
distal and proximal.
The anatomical term that means "away from the midline of the body" is
lateral.
Which of the following describes the position of the nose?
superior to the mouth.
A vertical plane that separates the body into right and left portions is called a _____ plane.
sagittal.
Which of the following is most inferior in location: pelvic cavity, mediastinum, diaphragm, plueral cavity or pericardial cavity?
pelvic cavity
The thoracic cavity is seperated from the abdominal cavity by the
diaphragm
A bullet enters the left lung and collapses it. Which cavity has been entered?
pleural
The cavity of the body immediately inferior to the diaphragm is the _____ cavity.
abdominal
Which of the following organs is retroperitoneal in location?
Kidney
The wall of the abdominopelvic cavity is lined by a serous membrane called the
parietal peritoneum.
The plasma membrane
regulates movement of materials into and out of the cell.
The plasma membrane is selectively permeable. This means
only certain substances can pass through it.
The aroma of cookies baking in the kitchen reaches you in the living room. The distribution of this order throughout the house is an example of
simple diffusion.
In the process of diffusion, net movement of substances is always from a region
of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Which of the following will increase the rate of diffusion?
an increase in the temperature.
Osmosis is the diffusion of ______ across a selectively permeable membrane.
water
If 0.9% saline solution is isotonic to a cell, then a 0.5% saline solution.
is hypotonic to the cell.
Certain cells in the liver ingest bacteria and debris from damaged cells by a process called
phagocytosis
White blood cells engulf foreign particles by means of
phagocytosis
Cystoplasm is found
outside the nucleus but inside the plasma membrane.
Ribosomes are organelles responsible for
protein synthesis.
Cells that lack ribosomes cannot
engage in protein synthesis.
The functions of the Golgi apparatus is
packaging and distribution of proteins and lipids.
A cell that produces many proteins for secretion from the cell would have a large number of
rough ER and Golgi.
The intracellular digestive system of a cell is the
lysosome.
A cell's ability to replinish ATP is reduced by a metabloic posion. which organelle is being affected?
mitochondrion.
Experimental manipulation to increase the energy output of the cell might include
increasing the number of mitochondria.
A cell can meet increased energy demands by an
increase in the number of mitochondria
the "control center" of the cell is the
nucleus.
Which of the following structures is found in the nucleus?
chromosome
The nucleus of a cell function to
control and coordinate cellular activities.
Glycolysis
convert glucose to pyruvic acid.
The transfer of information from DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA) is known as
transcription.
Mitosis
forms two daughter cells with the same amount of DNA as the mother cell.
Human somatic cells contain ____ chromosomes; human gametes contain _____ chromosomes.
46; 23
Which of the following events occurs during anaphase
Chromosomes migrate to opposite poles of the cell.
Epithelia tissue is characterized by
tightly packaged cells.
The various types of epithelium are classified by
The shape of cells and number of cell layers.
Which type of epithelium has the following characteristics: multiple layers, squamous cell shape, dead outer layers of cells, and keratin present in some cells?
stratisfied keratinized squamous epithelium.
Epithelium that is primarily secretory in function would most likely be
simple cuboidal.
Unlike an exocrine gland, and endocrine gland
has no ducts.
An infant born with a genetic defect that causes little or no brown fat to be formed will have
difficulty regulating his body temperature.
Adipose tissue
functions as an insulator and site of energy storage.
Blood cells are porduced in hemopoietic tissue found in
red bone marrow.
Cartilage heals slowly after an injury because
it has few, if any, blood vessels.
Muscle tissue is characterized by its
contractility
A muscle is not consciously controlled and has a banded appearance would be described as
straited involuntary.
Movement of food through the digestive tract results from the action of
smooth muscle.
The type of membrane that lines freely moveable joints is a ______ membrane.
synovial
The type of membrane that protects internal organs from friction is a ______ membrane.
serous
Which of the following are symptoms of inflammation?
redness, heat, and pain.
Which of the following occurs when the permability of blood vessels increase during inflammation?
migration of white blood cells to the site of injury
In the process of tissue repair, which of the events listed below occurs last?
Granulation tissue develops
Suturing a large wound
reduces risk of infection and helps to heal faster.