- from Illinois, self-made man who rose from frontier poverty to legal and political prominence
- embodied the Republican idea of equal opportunity
American Colonization Society
1. In 1816, people wanted to colonize free blacks on a voluntary basis
2. Claimed that free blacks would always face discrimination and the only humane thing to do was colonize them elsewhere
3. Free blacks were mixed in their support
4. Most free blacks oppose the idea
- made President after the assassination of Lincoln
- senator from Tennessee that didn't leave his seat after secession and stayed loyal to the Union
- grew up poor in the south and contributed to Lincoln's views on blacks
- wants to punish the Confederates
- his plan for Reconstruction is similar to Lincoln's
laws passed by southern states immediately after the Civil War to maintain white supremacy by restricting the rights of the newly freed slaves
- result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
- the border war that erupted between proslavery and antislavery forces in "bleeding" Kansas
term the Southerners used to describe the Northerners that moved to the South during Reconstruction
Compromise of 1850
- proposed by Henry Clay who wants to admit California as a free state
- organize the rest of the Mexican cession to two territories on the basis of popular sovereignty (Mexican law had already abolished slavery there)
- Resolve boundary dispute between New Mexico and Texas by granting the disputing region to New Mexico and paying Texas' debt of 10 million
- proposes to abolish the slave trade in Washington, D.C.
- called for a more effective Fugitive Slave Law
Compromise of 1877
- Hayes would be President and southern blacks would be abandoned by their fate
- removal of all federal troops from the former Confederate states
the appointment of at least one Southern Democrat to Hayes's cabinet
- construction of another transcontinental railroad
- legislation to help industrialize the South and get them back on their feet
1. will refuse to let Southern Democrats sit in Congress
2. want to make sure the Southern planter class is
3. Congress demands that Southern blacks have the right to vote
4. more harsh than what Lincoln/Johnson would want
- passed by the Confederate Congress that declares the all able bodied white males 18-35 were subject to military service
- later changed the age from 17-50
- will allow exemptions: civil service; people who work for the government
- could avoid the draft for a price (300-500) or hire a substitute
- men were granted an exemption for every 20 slaves they owned
- teachers also had an exemption
1. The number of slaves more than tripled between 1810 to 1860 to more nearly four million
2. Cotton-growing areas of the South were becoming more and more dependent on slavery
3. Short-staple cotton was the South's major crop
4. The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 contributed to the rise of cotton cultivation
5. 3/4 of the world's supply came from the American South
1. Free black man in Charleston, South Carolina who planned a conspiracy to seize local armories, arm the slave population, and take possession of the city
2. Known as the Vessey Conspiracy
- Northern states had a quota that they each had to meet
- if the quota was not met, there was a draft in the state
- states will begin to pay bounties to pay people to volunteer (up to $1000)
- this encourages people to desert and go elsewhere
- people could purchase a year long exemption for $300 or hire a substitute
Dred Scott v. Sanford
- Missouri slave that moved to Illinois in 1834 and then moved to Wisconsin in 1836
- sued for his freedom on the grounds that he had lived for many years in an area where slavery had been outlawed by the Missouri Compromise
- the case went to the Supreme Court
- the Court states that a slave is not a citizen and had no right to sue in federal courts
- The Court ruled that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
During the first year of war, the South had...
more than enough volunteers and had to reject 200,000
The Election of 1848
- Zachary Taylor wins the Election.
- Taylor proposes to admit California and New Mexico as free states
- California applied for admission to the Union as a free state
- The South hates Taylor's initial proposal because they are afraid New Mexico will be a free state as well
- The South is afraid to become a political minority
- Southerners accused Taylor of trying to impose the Wilmot Proviso
The Election of 1860
- Republican delegates called for a high protective tariff, free homesteads, and federal aid for internal improvements, esp. the transcontinental railroad
- The South hates it all because it encourages people to move and possibly the states would be free
- The split of the Democratic party helps Lincoln
- Lincoln wins 39% of the vote and has the majority of the Electoral vote
- issued in Sept. 1862, and then Jan. 1 1863 declares that all slaves in Confederate states in rebellion will be free and will also allow blacks to join the military - 180,000 serve
Even though the Black Codes were declared unconstitutional, blacks were more likely to....?
- be charged with crimes than whites
- more likely to be convicted and receive a longer jail sentence than whites
- ratified in 1870, prohibits the denial or abridgment of the right to vote by the federal of state governments on the basis of race, color, or prior condition as a slave.
- intended to guarantee African Americans the right to vote in the South
- led by Pierre G. T. Beauregard
- after 34 hours the Union forces rendered
- The Confederates/The South wins
- ratified in 1868, it provided citizenship to ex-slaves after the Civil War and constitutionally protected equal rights under the law for all citizens.
- Radical Republicans used it to enact a congressional Reconstruction policy in the former Confederate states
people who didn't want slavery to expand to new territories but were not an abolitionist party
Fugitive Slave Law
- Suspected fugitives were denied a jury trial, the right to testify on their own behalf, and other basic constitutional rights
- There were no effective safeguards against falsely identifying fugitives or kidnapping free black slaves
- If a judge decides the accused is a runaway slave, the judge receives 10 dollars; if the judge decides the accused is not a runaway slave, the judge receives 5 dollars
How are Northern blacks treated?
- They are segregated in schools
- Constantly ridiculed day to day
- Denied memberships in Unions and artisan associations
- They can't get licenses they need to operate independent businesses
How did civilians react to the Draft Bill?
-in July 1963, a NYC mob of 50,000 protest the draft
- mainly made up of Irish immigrants b/c they are angry about the draft and afford to pay a substitute
- The mob blames the war on blacks, will lynch a number of blacks, attack homes, and a black orphanage
- 120 people will die and 2 million dollars of property destroyed
How did Northerners view the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
They viewed it as an abomination because it permitted the possibility of slavery in an area where it had previously been prohibited
- a violation of the Missouri Compromise
How did Radicals such as Thaddeus Stevens want to reshape Southern society?
- believed in "regeneration before Reconstruction"
- required an extended period of military rule, confiscation and redistribution of large landholdings and federal aid for schools to educate blacks and whites
How did Republicans view the unsettled West?
As a land of opportunities where the hardworking could improve their social and economic status
- Free soil would serve as a guarantee of free competition or the "right to rise"
- But if slavery was permitted to expand, the rights of "free labor" would be denied and slaveowners would use the best land, blocking commercial and industrial development
How did the change of military success of the North change the political outlook?
Once the North began winning, the Civil War and Lincoln both become popular and have full support.
How did the Civil War change women in society?
The devastation of the southern economy forced many women to play a more public and economic role, forming reform groups and organizations.
How did the decision of the Court in the Dred Scott case help the Republicans?
it helped the Republicans build support on claiming that slave power was dominating all branches of the federal government and attempting to use the Constitution to achieve it's own goals
How did the North provide materials for the war?
-the North's economy was strong at the core
- it's factories and farms could produce enough provisions without hurting the civilian population
How did the South provide materials for the war?
- the Southern economy was less adaptable than the North
- the Confederacy had to rely on a govt. cash program to produce war materials
How does Clay pass the Compromise?
- Clay will compromise and join with the North and then join with the South to pass the other parts
- By Sept. 1850, all bills are passed but still no one is satisfied
How does Nat Turner's rebellion change slavery?
1. More restrict the movement of blacks
2. Southerners blame that Northern abolitionists were the cause; mail is now censored; abolitionist literature is not mailed in the South
3. More laws restricted slaves to read or write
4. Curfews are set up to prohibit blacks from congregating in groups larger than two
5. More difficult to free your slaves; had to take slaves out of state in order to be free
How does the North feel about the secession?
The North doesn't want to let the South go and doesn't allow it
How does the South feel about the reconstruction governments?
They hate it and can't bear up with the constant opposition.
How do the Southern states prove that they are unrepentant?
- there are a number of race riots in the South
- they continue to deny blacks the right to vote
- they elected former Confederate leaders back into office
- southern states pass the Black Codes
How is the Nation different after the Civil War?
- at least two percent of the population died
- 100,000 people are addicted to drugs or disabled
- the country spent around 15 billion in the war
- South is even in more debt than before
- the physical destruction of the South is enormous
How were blacks still made to feel inferior?
1. it was made illegal for blacks to own property in certain areas
2. blacks still can't testify in court
3. have curfews
4. in order to avoid prison, blacks would sign longtime contracts to have a job like indentured servants
- an antislavery leader with a few followers murdered five proslavery settlers in cold blood - in response to a raid caused by proslavery adherents
- a hit-and-run guerilla war raged between free-state and slave-state groups
Johnson's Reconstruction Plan
- almost as lenient as Lincoln's
- Southerners, those who made 20,000 annually or less, could take an oath of allegience and recieve a pardon
- Wealthy men have to appeal directly to Johnson
- he sets up a governor for each state that meets his standards
- he also declares secession illegal, and repudiates the Condfederate debt
- states had to ratify the 13th Amendment and then they could hold elections and be readmitted to the Union
- Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois proposed a bill to organize the territory west of Missouri and Iowa
- sought up to set up a territorial government in Kansas and Nebraska on the basis of popular sovereignty
- wants to reunite the Democratic Party about Manifest Destiny and the transcontinental railroad
- tried to present it as a "railroad bill" but the South doesn't see it that way
- the South sees it as an anti-slavery bill b/c the South sees Kansas & Nebraska as two free territories
- members of a secret, fraternal organization called the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, founded in NY
- when members were asked about the organization they responded with "I know nothing."
- The Order grew in size by 1854, reaching a membership of between 800,000 - 1,500,000
- political objective was to extend the period of naturalization (5 to 21 years) in order to undercut immigrant voting and to keep aliens in their place
Laws passed in the South for Free Blacks
1. Forced free blacks to register or have white guardians who responsible for their behavior
2. Free blacks were required to carry papers proving their free status
3. Laws invoked to exclude blacks from several occupations
- nativists, people who were native-born, believed in an anti-immigration attitude
- expressed their hatred in bloody anti-Catholic riots, burning churches and convents
- a preacher and prophet who believed God had given him a sign that the time was ripe to strike for freedom; a vision of black and white angels wrestling in the sky
- led a slave rebellion to punish slave owners
- killing over 60 whites
- lasted only 48 hours before it dispersed
- six months later, Turner was captures and flayed
- 120 innocent African Americans were killed
- After Nat Turner's Rebellion, slavery become much more oppressive
- Lewis Cass; Senator of Michigan; Democrat; places the sovereignty doctrine
- described as "squatter sovereignty" meant that the settlers could vote slavery up or down at the first meeting of a territorial legislature
- Cass doesn't know if the federal government has the right to regulate slavery;
- Cass says if the govt. has the right to abolish slavery; they shouldn't
- Cass wants to keep slavery out of national politics because it will tear the country and the democratic party apart
- a minority of congressional Republicans who are strongly antislavery favored protection of black rights, especially black male suffrage, as a precondition for the readmission of southern states
- most of northern nativists became Republicans
- led by professional politicians who used to be Whigs or Democrats
- argued that the "slave power conspiracy" was a greater threat to American liberty and equality
- supported an anti-immigrant or anti-Catholic bias
term used to describe white southerners who were in favor of Reconstruction and the Republican Party after the Civil War...
- South Carolina will vote unanimously to secede
- six more southern states will secede
- In Feb. 1861, delegates from the Deep South established the Confederate States of America declaring themselves a separate nation
- the belief that the South is different from everyone
- believe in a measure of autonomy
- The South has become more conservative and defensive about slavery
- The defensiveness hardness into a cultural and political nationalism, seeing the North as a threat
1. John Calhoun argued that the National government can't pass a law that denies a citizen with their property
2. Only a state can abolish slavery within it's borders; the federal government can't
3. Until a territory becomes a state, it has to be open to slavery
4. Claims that all laws that prohibit slavery are unconstitutional
Ten Percent Plan
-once ten percent or more of the voting population of any occupied state had take an oath of allegiance to the Union and acknowledge the legality of emancipation, they were authorized to set up a loyal government
Tenure of Office Act
-intended to restrict the power of the President to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate.
- enacted on March 3, 1867, over the veto of President Andrew Johnson
- deny the president the power to remove any executive officer who had been appointed by the president, without the advice and consent of the Senate, unless the Senate approved the removal during the next full session of Congress.
Wade Davis Bill
- passed by Congress in July 1864, requiring that 50 percent of the voters take an oath of future loyalty before the restoration process could begin
- once that occurred, those who could swear they never willingly supported the Confederacy could vote in an election for delegates to a constitutional convention
What are the advantages of the North?
1. Much larger and has a huge economic advantage; 90% of America's industry
2. Can afford to finance the war
3. Has huge advantages in terms of transportation- railroads
4. The South always runs out of food and can only produce cotton
5. In terms of weaponry, the North is able to manufacture Springfield rifles; modern technology
What are the advantages of the South?
1. The U.S. Army before the wary was largely made up of Southerners; tended to be better marksman, horseman and like military life
2. The Confederate Army has better Generals
3. The South has the home-field advantage; most of the battles were fought in the South
4. Receive public support
5. Their strategic task to win to defend their territory and not quit until the North becomes tired
What are the problems that Lincoln faces?
- still a lot people that oppose the war
- still a bunch of Northern Democrats that believe in state's rights
- pacifists and abolitionists are glad that the South is gone and don't want to fight
- Lincoln has to deal with the Liberals and Conservatives
- Lincoln has to be careful that slave states are antagonized
- Lincoln has an unpopular war and is an unpopular President
What are the results of the Civil War?
- named the bloodiest American war
- 620,000 die during the war
- 400,000 of the casualties died from something other than being shot in battle, i.e. medical care, starvation
- left a high percentage of drug addicts
What did Radicals want to do for Reconstruction?
- They wanted to confescate southern plantations, divide up the land, and give it to freed slaves
- wanted a long period of rule to force the South to change
What did the war definitely decide in the end?
It decided that the federal government was supreme over the states and authority to act on all matters affecting the general welfare.
What does the abolishment result in?
People don't know what role free blacks play in society. The result is the American Colonization Society.
What factors contribute to a sense of Southern Nationalism?
- The South has a relatively homogenous economy with agriculture and slaves
- The South believes they are ethnically homogenous
- The South has a shared political ideology - John Lock & John Calhoun - state's right, federal government
- Share a collective fear of what might happen if the slaves were free
What happened after Fort Sumter?
- it unites the Northern opposition to the South
- also forces everyone to take sides
- The middle states will now secede and join the Confederacy.
What happens during the Election of 1856?
- The Know-Nothings will receive 900,000 votes but don't succeed in the Electoral College
- People begin to flee after the Election
- The Republican party forms
What is Congress' views on the South?
Congress says the South is a defeated nation that needs to be punished.
What is the fall of the Know-Nothings?
- the northern and southern delegates were split on the issue of slavery in the territories
- declines after people realize that nativism isn't the answer
- their secrecy comes back to haunt them
- inspired a certain amount of mob violence
- nominated Millard Fillmore as their representative
What is the Know-Nothings source of unity and strength?
Their focus on their anti-Catholic and anti-immigration viewpoints
What is the result of the Election of 1860?
The lower South launched a movement for immediate secession from the Union
- The South believes that they are a political minority and can't protect itself anymore
What is the rise of the Know-Nothings?
- it won complete control of Massachusetts,
- took power in three more New England states
- showed signs of becoming the next major political party
What is the South's views on the Emancipation Proclamation?
The South hates it and doesn't want to free their slaves.
What is the strategic task of the North?
to invade and conquer the South into submission by blocking the Southern coasts, seizing control of the Mississippi, and cutting off supplies of food and other essential commodities
What occurs in end of the Election of 1856?
- James Buchanan wins the Election
- the new Republican party does extremely well and terrifies the South
- The South wants a federal law that will protect slavery in the territories
What was Douglas' views on slavery?
- accused Lincoln of endangering the Union by his talk of putting slavery on the path to extinction
- charged that Lincoln's moral opposition to slavery implied a belief in racial equality
What was Lincoln's response to the Wade Davis Bill?
Lincoln exercised a pocket veto by refusing to sign the bill before Congress adjourned claiming that he didn't want to be committed to any single Reconstruction plan.
What were Lincoln's views on slavery?
- called for defensive actions to stop the spread of slavery and tried to link Douglas to a proslavery conspiracy
- denied being an abolitionist and made a distinction between tolerating slavery in the South where it was protected by the Constitution
- committed to white supremacy saying he would grant blacks the right to the fruits of their labor while denying them "privileges" of full citizenship
What were the effects of the K-N Act?
- It seemed to permit slavery and that the South were given something that North wasn't.
- showed that popular sovereignty can't solve the slavery issue
- shatters the The Whig party and it collapses
- helps to establish the Know-Nothings
What were the views on blacks and slavery?
- Slavery only exists in the South but the North was just was racist
- Very few Northerners were willing to give blacks social and economic equality
- Working class whites resented the competition of free blacks
- Some states prohibit blacks from moving to their states
- Northerners were against expansion of slavery to new territories
- split on sectional lines and very dividd about the Compromise
- They cannot come up with a party platform in 1852 b/c their beliefs weren't unified
- tried to receive interest in the nationalist economic policies
- upset about the influx of Catholics
Why did most free blacks oppose the American Colonization Society?
1. They argued that society still accepts slavery and that slavery should be worked to be abolished
2. They argued that it violates basic American principles
3. The United States is home and has been for generations and Africa wasn't home
4. African Americans resented the idea that they were a nuisance to get rid of
Why did people want to join the Know-Nothings?
1. The Whig Party was falling apart
2. the other political parties are divided on the slavery issue
3. nativism was popular in the North but Southerners can live with any party that isn't about slavery
4. offered simple solutions for complex problems
5. started out as a secret club and people found it inviting
Why did Reconstruction fail?
1. The South as a whole was unrepentant and hasn't changed; determined to make reconstruction fail
2. Both the North and South are tired of military rule
3. The Conservatives openly appeal to white supremacy
4. People of the North and South believe the propoganda about the bad the governments were and any change wouldn't be good
5. The Compromise of 1877 pulls soldiers out of the South
Why does another war start developing between the North and the South?
Because both sides misunderstand each other
Why does Clay break the Compromise into parts?
Because he can't pass it as a whole and will try to pass each part separately
Why does Lincoln change his mind about emancipation?
He changes his mind because:
- slave labor is helping the South
- Northern public opinion has shifted in favor of emancipation
- the morale in the North is going down and Lincoln wants to give a moral cause to fight the war
- by making it a "war good", it prevents England and France to joining with the Confederacy
- there was a military necessity
Why does the South feel like they have to secede?
- The South feels like they have to protect themselves, they don't feel safe, and says the secession is not about slavery
Why don't Free Soilers want slavery?
1. They believe that if slavery is allowed it will be difficult to remove later on
2. They are afraid big plantation owners will dominate life like they do in the South
3. People don't want to compete with slave labor
4. A lot of free soilers were racist and didn't want blacks in the new territories at all
Why don't Irish immigrants want to free the slaves?
Because they believe there will be competition for social and economic status
Why do people want to pardon?
(wealthy) people who could actually receive pardons wanted them because they couldn't vote or hold office without it
Why was slavery viewed as a "positive good"?
1. Whites said that it was the only way that blacks and whites could live harmoniously
2. Whites had a biblical argument
3. Whites had a historical argument and referenced Greece
4. Whites had a racial argument, saying blacks were inferior
4. Whites had a humanitarian argument, saying that slaves are treated better than free workers in the North
5. Whites had a social argument, saying that the South had more stability and more control
Why were the Confederate soldiers becoming undernourished?
-due to the Union blockade
- the railroad wasn't transporting goods, it was transporting troops
- when the North penetrated the South, it left gaps in the system
Why were volunteers reluctant to reenlist after their first year of war?
due to Army discipline and the conditions that the troops were under
William Lloyd Garrison
1. Publishes abolitionist newspaper - The Liberator
2. Calls for immediate emancipation of all slaves without compensation to the owner
3. Involved in different reform movements
- introduced by David Wilmot in 1846
- prohibits the introduction slavery into any territory the U.S. gains from Mexico
- Passes through the House but not by the Senate because the South has a maintained equality of the Senate
- Shows the sectional tensions that exist
- Argues that Congress has the right to make any law for the territories including laws about slavery