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Chapter 42 - Med Surg
Terms in this set (40)
A nurse is caring for an adult patient diagnosed with a back strain. What health education should the nurse provide to this patient?
A) Avoid lifting more than one-third of body weight without assistance.
B) Focus on using back muscles efficiently when lifting heavy objects.
C) Lift objects while holding the object a safe distance from the body.
D) Tighten the abdominal muscles and lock the knees when lifting of an object.
The nurse will instruct the patient on the safe and correct way to lift objects—using the strong quadriceps muscles of the thighs, with minimal use of the weak back muscles. To prevent recurrence of acute low back pain, the nurse may instruct the patient to avoid lifting more than one-third of his weight without help. The patient should be informed to place the feet a hip-width apart to provide a wide base of support, the person should bend the knees, tighten the abdominal muscles, and lift the object close to the body with a smooth motion, avoiding twisting and jerking.
A nurse is discussing conservative management of tendonitis with a patient. Which of the following may be an effective approach to managing tendonitis?
A) Weight reduction
B) Use of oral opioid analgesics
C) Intermittent application of ice and heat
D) Passive range of motion exercises
Conservative management of tendonitis includes rest of the extremity, intermittent ice and heat to the joint, and NSAIDs. Weight reduction may prevent future injuries but will not relieve existing tendonitis. Range-of-motion exercises may exacerbate pain. Opioids would not be considered a conservative treatment measure.
A patient presents at a clinic complaining of pain in his heel so bad that it inhibits his ability to walk. The patient is subsequently diagnosed with plantar fasciitis. This patient's plan of care should include what intervention?
A) Wrapping the affected area in lamb's wool or gauze to relieve pressure
B) Gently stretching the foot and the Achilles tendon
C) Wearing open-toed shoes at all times
D) Applying topical analgesic ointment to plantar surface each morning
Plantar fasciitis leads to pain that is localized to the anterior medial aspect of the heel and diminishes with gentle stretching of the foot and Achilles tendon. Dressings of any kind are not of therapeutic benefit and analgesic ointments do not address the pathology of the problem. Open-toed shoes are of no particular benefit.
A nurse is providing an educational class to a group of older adults at a community senior center. In an effort to prevent osteoporosis, the nurse should encourage participants to ensure that they consume the recommended adequate intake of what nutrients? Select all that apply.
A) Vitamin B12
E) Vitamin D
Ans: D, E
A diet rich in calcium and vitamin D protects against skeletal demineralization. Intake of vitamin B12and potassium does not directly influence the risk for osteoporosis. Calcitonin is not considered to be a dietary nutrient.
A nurse is providing a class on osteoporosis at the local seniors' center. Which of the following statements related to osteoporosis is most accurate?
A) Osteoporosis is categorized as a disease of the elderly.
B) A nonmodifiable risk factor for osteoporosis is a person's level of activity.
C) Secondary osteoporosis occurs in women after menopause.
D) Slow discontinuation of corticosteroid therapy can halt the progression of the osteoporosis.
When corticosteroid therapy is discontinued, the progression of osteoporosis is halted, but restoration of lost bone mass does not occur. Osteoporosis is not a disease of the elderly because its onset occurs earlier in life, when bone mass peaks and then begins to decline. A person's level of physical activity is a modifiable factor that influences peak bone mass. Lack of activity increases the risk for the development of osteoporosis. Primary osteoporosis occurs in women after menopause.
A nurse is teaching a patient with osteomalacia about the role of diet. What would be the best choice for breakfast for a patient with osteomalacia?
A) Cereal with milk, a scrambled egg, and grapefruit
B) Poached eggs with sausage and toast
C) Waffles with fresh strawberries and powdered sugar
D) A bagel topped with butter and jam with a side dish of grapes
The best meal option is the one that contains the highest dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D. The best selection among those listed is cereal with milk, and eggs, as these foods contain calcium and vitamin D in a higher quantity over the other menu options.
A nurse is caring for a patient with Paget's disease and is reviewing the patient's most recent laboratory values. Which of the following values is most characteristic of Paget's disease?
A) An elevated level of parathyroid hormone and low calcitonin levels
B) A low serum alkaline phosphatase level and a low serum calcium level
C) An elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level and a normal serum calcium level
D) An elevated calcitonin level and low levels of parathyroid hormone
Patients with Paget's disease have normal blood calcium levels. Elevated serum alkaline phosphatase concentration and urinary hydroxyproline excretion reflect the increased osteoblastic activity associated with this condition. Alterations in PTH and calcitonin levels are atypical.
Which of the following patients should the nurse recognize as being at the highest risk for the development of osteomyelitis?
A) A middle-age adult who takes ibuprofen daily for rheumatoid arthritis
B) An elderly patient with an infected pressure ulcer in the sacral area
C) A 17-year-old football player who had orthopedic surgery 6 weeks prior
D) An infant diagnosed with jaundice
Patients who are at high risk of osteomyelitis include those who are poorly nourished, elderly, and obese. The elderly patient with an infected sacral pressure ulcer is at the greatest risk for the development of osteomyelitis, as this patient has two risk factors: age and the presence of a soft-tissue infection that has the potential to extend into the bone. The patient with rheumatoid arthritis has one risk factor and the infant with jaundice has no identifiable risk factors. The patient 6 weeks postsurgery is beyond the usual window of time for the development of a postoperative surgical wound infection.
A nurse is caring for a patient with a bone tumor. The nurse is providing education to help the patient reduce the risk for pathologic fractures. What should the nurse teach the patient?
A) Strive to achieve maximum weight-bearing capabilities.
B) Gradually strengthen the affected muscles through weight training.
C) Support the affected extremity with external supports such as splints.
D) Limit reliance on assistive devices in order to build strength.
During nursing care, the affected extremities must be supported and handled gently. External supports (splints) may be used for additional protection. Prescribed weight-bearing restrictions must be followed. Assistive devices should be used to strengthen the unaffected extremities.
A patient presents at a clinic complaining of back pain that goes all the way down the back of the leg to the foot. The nurse should document the presence of what type of pain?
Sciatica nerve pain travels down the back of the thigh to the foot of the affected leg. Bursitis is inflammation of a fluid-filled sac in a joint. Radiculopathy is disease of a nerve root. Tendonitis is inflammation of muscle tendons.
A patient tells the nurse that he has pain and numbness to his thumb, first finger, and second finger of the right hand. The nurse discovers that the patient is employed as an auto mechanic, and that the pain is increased while working. This may indicate that the patient could possibly have what health problem?
A) Carpel tunnel syndrome
C) Impingement syndrome
D) Dupuytren's contracture
Carpel tunnel syndrome may be manifested by numbness, pain, paresthesia, and weakness along the median nerve. Tendonitis is inflammation of muscle tendons. Impingement syndrome is a general term that describes all lesions that involve the rotator cuff of the shoulder. Dupuytren's contracture is a slowly progressive contracture of the palmar fascia.
A nurse is assessing a patient who reports a throbbing, burning sensation in the right foot. The patient states that the pain is worst during the day but notes that the pain is relieved with rest. The nurse should recognize the signs and symptoms of what health problem?
A) Morton's neuroma
C) Hallux valgus
Morton's neuroma is a swelling of the third (lateral) branch of the median plantar nerve, which causes a throbbing, burning pain, usually relieved with rest. Pescavus refers to a foot with an abnormally high arch and a fixed equinus deformity of the forefoot. Hallux valgus (bunion) is a deformity in which the great toe deviates laterally and there is a marked prominence of the medial aspect of the first metatarsal-phalangeal joint and exostosis. Onychocryptosis (ingrown toenail) occurs when the free edge of a nail plate penetrates the surrounding skin, laterally or anteriorly.
A nurse is reviewing the pathophysiology that may underlie a patient's decreased bone density. What hormone should the nurse identify as inhibiting bone resorption and promoting bone formation?
B) Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Calcitonin inhibits bone resorption and promotes bone formation, estrogen inhibits bone breakdown, and parathyroid increases bone resorption. Estrogen, which inhibits bone breakdown, decreases with aging. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases with aging, increasing bone turnover and resorption. Progesterone is the major naturally occurring human progestogen and plays a role in the female menstrual cycle.
A patient is undergoing diagnostic testing for osteomalacia. Which of the following laboratory results is most suggestive of this diagnosis?
A) High chloride, calcium, and magnesium
B) High parathyroid and calcitonin levels
C) Low serum calcium and magnesium levels
D) Low serum calcium and low phosphorus level
Laboratory studies will reveal a low serum calcium and low phosphorus level.
An 80-year-old man in a long-term care facility has a chronic leg ulcer and states that the area has become increasingly painful in recent days. The nurse notes that the site is now swollen and warm to the touch. The patient should undergo diagnostic testing for what health problem?
D) Septic arthritis
When osteomyelitis develops from the spread of an adjacent infection, no signs of septicemia are present, but the area becomes swollen, warm, painful, and tender to touch. Osteoporosis is the most prevalent bone disease in the world. Osteomalacia is a metabolic bone disease characterized by inadequate mineralization of bone. Septicarthritis occurs when joints become infected through spread of infection from other parts of the body (hematogenous spread) or directly through trauma or surgical instrumentation.
A patient has returned to the unit after undergoing limb-sparing surgery to remove a metastatic bone tumor. The nurse providing postoperative care in the days following surgery assesses for what complication from surgery?
A) Deficient fluid volume
B) Delayed wound healing
D) Pathologic fractures
Delayed wound healing is a complication of surgery due to tissue trauma from the surgery. Nutritional deficiency is usually due to the effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, which may cause weight loss. Pathologic fractures are not a complication of surgery.
A nurse is caring for a patient who is 12 hours postoperative following foot surgery. The nurse assesses the presence of edema in the foot. What nursing measure will the nurse implement to control the edema?
A) Elevate the foot on several pillows.
B) Apply warm compresses intermittently to the surgical area.
C) Administer a loop diuretic as ordered.
D) Increase circulation through frequent ambulation.
To control the edema in the foot of a patient who experienced foot surgery, the nurse will elevate the foot on several pillows when the patient is sitting or lying. Diuretic therapy is not an appropriate intervention for edema related to inflammation. Intermittent ice packs should be applied to the surgical area during the first 24 to 48 hours after surgery to control edema and provide some pain relief. Ambulation will gradually be resumed based on the guidelines provided by the surgeon.
A patient with diabetes is attending a class on the prevention of associated diseases.
What action should the patient perform to reduce the risk of osteomyelitis?
A) Increase calcium and vitamin intake.
B) Perform meticulous foot care.
C) Exercise 3 to 4 times weekly for at least 30 minutes.
D) Take corticosteroids as ordered.
Diabetic foot ulcers have a high potential for progressing to osteomyelitis. Meticulous foot care can help mitigate this risk. Corticosteroids can exacerbate the risk of osteomyelitis. Increased intake of calcium and vitamins as well as regular exercise are beneficial health promotion exercises, but they do not directly reduce the risk of osteomyelitis.
A nurse is planning the care of an older adult patient with osteomalacia. What action should the nurse recommend in order to promote vitamin D synthesis?
A) Ensuring adequate exposure to sunlight
B) Eating a low-purine diet
C) Performing cardiovascular exercise while avoiding weight-bearing exercises
D) Taking thyroid supplements as ordered
Because sunlight is necessary for synthesizing vitamin D, patients should be encouraged to spend some time in the sun. A low-purine diet is not a relevant action and thyroid supplements do not directly affect bone function. Action must be taken to prevent fractures, but weight-bearing exercise within safe parameters is not necessarily contraindicated.
A patient presents to a clinic complaining of a leg ulcer that isn't healing; subsequent diagnostic testing suggests osteomyelitis. The nurse is aware that the most common pathogen to cause osteomyelitis is what?
A) Staphylococcus aureus
D) Escherichia coli
S. aureus causes over 50% of bone infections. Proteus, Pseudomonas, and E. coli are also causes, but to a lesser extent.
A nurse is providing care for a patient who has a recent diagnosis of Paget's disease. When planning this patient's nursing care, interventions should address what nursing diagnoses? Select all that apply.
A) Impaired Physical Mobility
B) Acute Pain
C) Disturbed Auditory Sensory Perception
D) Risk for Injury
E) Risk for Unstable Blood Glucose
Ans: A, B, C, D Feedback:
Patient's with Paget's disease are at risk of decreased mobility, pain, hearing loss, and injuries resulting from decreased bone density. Paget's disease does not affect blood glucose levels.
A nurse is caring for a patient who is being assessed following complaints of severe and persistent low back pain. The patient is scheduled for diagnostic testing in the morning. Which of the following are appropriate diagnostic tests for assessing low back pain?
A) Computed tomography (CT)
C) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Ans: A, C, D, E Feedback:
A variety of diagnostic tests can be used to address lower back pain, including CT, MRI, ultrasound, and X-rays. Angiography is not related to the etiology of back pain.
A nurse is reviewing the care of a patient who has a long history of lower back pain that has not responded to conservative treatment measures. The nurse should anticipate the administration of what drug?
Short-term prescription muscle relaxants (e.g., cyclobenzaprine [Flexeril]) are effective in relieving acute low back pain. ASA is not normally used for pain control, due to its antiplatelet action and associated risk for bleeding. Calcitonin and corticosteroids are not used in the treatment of lower back pain.
A nurse is collaborating with the physical therapist to plan the care of a patient with osteomyelitis. What principle should guide the management of activity and mobility in this patient?
A) Stress on the weakened bone must be avoided.
B) Increased heart rate enhances perfusion and bone healing.
C) Bed rest results in improved outcomes in patients with osteomyelitis.
D) Maintenance of baseline ADLs is the primary goal during osteomyelitis treatment
The patient with osteomyelitis has bone that is weakened by the infective process and must be protected by avoidance of stress on the bone.This risk guides the choice of activity in a patient with osteomyelitis. Bed rest is not normally indicated, however. Maintenance of prediagnosis ADLs may be an unrealistic short-term goal for many patients.
A 32-year-old patient comes to the clinic complaining of shoulder tenderness, pain, and limited movement. Upon assessment the nurse finds edema. An MRI shows hemorrhage of the rotator cuff tendons and the patient is diagnosed with impingement syndrome. What action should the nurse recommend in order to promote healing? A) Support the affected arm on pillows at night.
B) Take prescribed corticosteroids as ordered.
C) Put the shoulder through its full range of motion 3 times daily.
D) Keep the affected arm in a sling for 2 to 4 weeks.
The patient should support the affected arm on pillows while sleeping to keep from turning onto the shoulder. Corticosteroids are not commonly prescribed and a sling is not normally necessary. ROM exercises are indicated, but putting the arm through its full ROM may cause damage during the healing process.
A patient presents at the clinic with complaints of morning numbness, cramping, and stiffness in his fourth and fifth fingers. What disease process should the nurse suspect?
B) A ganglion
C) Carpal tunnel syndrome
D) Dupuytren's disease
In cases of Dupuytren's disease, the patient may experience dull, aching discomfort, morning numbness, cramping, and stiffness in the affected fingers. This condition starts in one hand, but eventually both hands are affected. This clinical scenario does not describe tendonitis, a ganglion, or carpal tunnel syndrome.
A patient's electronic health record notes that the patient has hallux valgus. What signs and symptoms would the nurse expect this patient to manifest?
A) Deviation of a great toe laterally
B) Abnormal flexion of the great toe
C) An exaggerated arch of the foot
D) Fusion of the toe joints
A deformity in which the great toe deviates laterally and there is a marked prominence of the medial aspect of the first metatarsal-phalangeal joint and exostosis is referred to as hallux valgus (bunion). Hallux valgus does not result in abnormal flexion, abnormalities of the arch, or joint fusion.
An older adult woman's current medication regimen includes alendronate (Fosamax).
What outcome would indicate successful therapy?
A) Increased bone mass
B) Resolution of infection
C) Relief of bone pain
D) Absence of tumor spread
Bisphosphonates such as Fosamax increase bone mass and decrease bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast function. These drugs do not treat infection, pain, or tumors.
A nurse is caring for a patient who is being treated in the hospital for a spontaneous vertebral fracture related to osteoporosis. The nurse should address the nursing diagnosis of Acute Pain Related to Fracture by implementing what intervention?
A) Maintenance of high Fowler's positioning whenever possible
B) Intermittent application of heat to the patient's back
C) Use of a pressure-reducing mattress
D) Passive range of motion exercises
Intermittent local heat and back rubs promote muscle relaxation following osteoporotic vertebral fractures. High Fowler's positioning is likely to exacerbate pain. The mattress must be adequately supportive, but pressure reduction is not necessarily required. Passive range of motion exercises to the back would cause pain and impair healing.
A patient has been admitted to the hospital with a spontaneous vertebral fracture related to osteoporosis. Which of the following nursing diagnoses must be addressed in the plan of care?
A) Risk for Aspiration Related to Vertebral Fracture
B) Constipation Related to Vertebral Fracture
C) Impaired Swallowing Related to Vertebral Fracture
D) Decreased Cardiac Output Related to Vertebral Fracture
Constipation is a problem related to immobility and medications used to treat vertebral fractures. The patient's risks of aspiration, dysphagia, and decreased cardiac output are not necessarily heightened.
A nursing educator is reviewing the risk factors for osteoporosis with a group of recent graduates. What risk factor of the following should the educator describe?
A) Recurrent infections and prolonged use of NSAIDs
B) High alcohol intake and low body mass index
C) Small frame, female gender, and Caucasian ethnicity
D) Male gender, diabetes, and high protein intake
Small-framed, nonobese Caucasian women are at greatest risk for osteoporosis. Diabetes, high protein intake, alcohol use, and infections are not among the most salient risk factors for osteoporosis.
A nurse is providing care for a patient who has osteomalacia. What major goal will guide the choice of medical and nursing interventions?
A) Maintenance of skin integrity
B) Prevention of bone metastasis
C) Maintenance of adequate levels of activated vitamin D
D) Maintenance of adequate parathyroid hormone function
The primary defect in osteomalacia is a deficiency of activated vitamin D, which promotes calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and facilitates mineralization of bone. Interventions are aimed at resolving the processes underlying this deficiency. Maintenance of skin integrity is important, but is not the primary goal in care. Osteomalacia is not a malignant process. Overproduction (not underproduction) of PTH can cause the disease.
A patient has been admitted to the medical unit for the treatment of Paget's disease. When reviewing the medication administration record, the nurse should anticipate what medications? Select all that apply.
C) Alkaline phosphatase
D) Calcium gluconate
Ans: A, B
Bisphosphonates are the cornerstone of Paget therapy in that they stabilize the rapid bone turnover. Calcitonin is also used because it retards bone resorption by decreasing the number and availability of osteoclasts. Alkaline phosphatase is a naturally occurring enzyme, not a drug. Calcium gluconate and estrogen are not used in the treatment of Paget's disease.
The health care team is caring for a patient with osteomalacia. It has been determined that the osteomalacia is caused by malabsorption. What is the usual treatment for osteomalacia caused by malabsorption?
A) Supplemental calcium and increased doses of vitamin D
B) Exogenous parathyroid hormone and multivitamins
C) Colony-stimulating factors and calcitonin
D) Supplemental potassium and pancreatic enzymes
If osteomalacia is caused by malabsorption, increased doses of vitamin D, along with supplemental calcium, are usually prescribed.
A patient with diabetes has been diagnosed with osteomyelitis. The nurse notes that the patient's right foot is pale and mottled, cool to touch, with a capillary refill of greater than 3 seconds. The nurse should suspect what type of osteomyelitis?
A) Hematogenous osteomyelitis
B) Osteomyelitis with vascular insufficiency
C) Contiguous-focus osteomyelitis
D) Osteomyelitis with muscular deterioration
Osteomyelitis is classified as hematogenous osteomyelitis (i.e., due to blood-borne spread of infection); contiguous-focus osteomyelitis, from contamination from bone surgery, open fracture, or traumatic injury (e.g., gunshot wound); and osteomyelitis with vascular insufficiency, seen most commonly among patients with diabetes and peripheral vascular disease, most commonly affecting the feet. Osteomyelitis with muscular deterioration does not exist.
An orthopedic nurse is caring for a patient who is postoperative day one following foot surgery. What nursing intervention should be included in the patient's subsequent care?
A) Dressing changes should not be performed unless there are clear signs of infection.
B) The surgical site can be soaked in warm bath water for up to 5 minutes.
C) The surgical site should be cleansed with hydrogen peroxide once daily.
D) The foot should be elevated in order to prevent edema.
Pain experienced by patients who undergo foot surgery is related to inflammation and edema. To control the anticipated edema, the foot should be elevated on several pillows when the patient is sitting or lying. Regular dressing changes are performed and the wound should be kept dry. Hydrogen peroxide is not used to cleanse surgical wounds.
A nurse is providing discharge teaching for a patient who underwent foot surgery. The nurse is collaborating with the occupational therapist and discussing the use of assistive devices. On what variables does the choice of assistive devices primarily depend?
A) Patient's general condition, balance, and weight-bearing prescription
B) Patient's general condition, strength, and gender
C) Patient's motivation, age, and weight-bearing prescription
D) Patient's occupation, motivation, and age
Assistive devices (e.g., crutches, walker) may be needed. The choice of the devices depends on the patient's general condition and balance, and on the weight-bearing prescription. The patient's strength, motivation, and weight restrictions are not what the choice of assistive devices is based on.
A patient has come to the clinic for a routine annual physical. The nurse practitioner notes a palpable, painless projection of bone at the patient's shoulder. The projection appears to be at the distal end of the humerus. The nurse should suspect the presence of which of the following?
D) Paget's disease
Osteochondroma is the most common benign bone tumor. It usually occurs as a large projection of bone at the end of long bones (at the knee or shoulder). Osteomyelitis, osteomalacia, and Paget's disease do not involve the development of excess bone tissue.
An elderly female with osteoporosis has been hospitalized. Prior to discharge, when teaching the patient, the nurse should include information about which major complication of osteoporosis?
A) Bone fracture
B) Loss of estrogen
C) Negative calcium balance
D) Dowager's hump
Bone fracture is a major complication of osteoporosis that results when loss of calcium and phosphate increases the fragility of bones. Estrogen deficiencies result from menopause, not osteoporosis. Calcium and vitamin D supplements may be used to support normal bone metabolism, but a negative calcium balance is not a complication of osteoporosis. Dowager's hump results from bone fractures. It develops when repeated vertebral fractures increase spinal curvature.
An older adult patient sought care for the treatment of a swollen, painful knee joint. Diagnostic imaging and culturing of synovial fluid resulted in a diagnosis of septic arthritis. The nurse should prioritize which of the following aspects of care?
A) Administration of oral and IV corticosteroids as ordered
B) Prevention of falls and pathologic fractures
C) Maintenance of adequate serum levels of vitamin D
D) Intravenous administration of antibiotics
IV antibiotics are the major treatment modality for septic arthritis; the nurse must ensure timely administration of these drugs. Corticosteroids are not used to treat septic arthritis and vitamin D levels are not necessarily affected. Falls prevention is important, but septic arthritis does not constitute the same fracture risk as diseases with decreased bone density.
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