Terms in this set (90)
There are three elements in any integrated marketing communication strategy: the _______, the channels through which the message is communicated, and evaluation of the results of the communication.
consumer being targeted
Integrated marketing communications (IMC) encompasses a variety of communication disciplines in combination to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communicative impact. IMC involves three elements: the consumer, the channels through which the message is communicated, and an evaluation of the results of the communication.
Home Depot hired an advertising agency to develop television ads for its grand opening in southern Maine. The advertising agency represents which of the following components of the communication process?
When Home Depot works with an advertising agency to develop marketing communications, the marketing department or external agency receives the information and transforms it for use in its role as the transmitter.
When designing in-store signage, retailers often develop yellow signs and shelf tags with bold lettering to catch consumers' attention. The use of visuals in this manner represents the _____ component of the communication process.
Encoding means converting the sender's ideas into a message, which could be verbal, visual, or both.
Based on the recommendation of its advertising agency, Home Depot chose to advertise on HGTV. In this situation, HGTV represents which component of the communication process?
The communication channel is the medium—print, broadcast, the Internet—that carries the message. Home Depot chose HGTV as the communication channel for its message.
In the communication process, _____ refers to the process by which the receiver interprets the sender's message.
Decoding refers to the process by which the receiver interprets the sender's message.
Macy's is conducting marketing research to determine whether or not its advertising message could be clearly understood by its customers. This relates to which component of the communication process?
The feedback loop allows the receiver to communicate with the sender and thereby informs the sender whether the message was received and decoded properly.
The AIDA model is also known as the _____ model.
think, feel, do
Customers actually have three types of responses, so the AIDA model is also known as the "think, feel, do" model.
The AIDA model represents a series of mental stages a consumer goes through and includes awareness, action, interest, and
The most common model marketers use to understand the mental stages a consumer goes through is the AIDA model, which suggests that awareness leads to interest, which leads to desire, which leads to action.
Harley Davidson has _____ if a consumer responds "Harley" when asked about American-made motorcycles.
Top-of-mind awareness, the highest level of awareness, occurs when consumers mention a specific brand name first when they are asked about a product or service.
The highest level of awareness is
Top-of-mind awareness, the highest level of awareness, occurs when consumers mention a specific brand name first when they are asked about a product or service.
After the firm has piqued the interest of its target market, the goal of subsequent IMC messages should move the consumer from "I like it" to
"I want it."
After the firm has piqued the interest of its target market, the goal of subsequent IMC messages should move the consumer from "I like it" to "I want it." This is the goal of the desire stage in the AIDA model.
The fact that a particular advertisement might not cause a consumer to make an immediate purchase is referred to as
the lagged effect
Sometimes consumers don't act immediately after receiving a marketing communication because of the lagged effect—a delayed response to a marketing communication campaign.
From the consumer's perspective, the elements of an IMC strategy can be viewed as being either
passive or interactive.
The individual elements of an IMC strategy and the way each contributes to a successful IMC campaign can be viewed on two axes: passive and interactive (from the consumer's perspective) and offline and online.
The U.S. government promoted public participation in the 2010 census during the televised Super Bowl game in its efforts is to raise awareness of when and how the census works. This is an example of which of the following promotional elements?
Perhaps the most visible of the IMC components, advertising entails the placement of announcements and persuasive messages in time or space purchased in any of the mass media by business firms, nonprofit organizations, government agencies, and individuals who seek to inform and/or persuade members of a particular target market or audience about their products, services, organizations, or ideas.
Traditionally, advertising has been _____ and _____.
Traditionally, advertising has been passive and offline. However, more recently there has been a growth in online advertising and interactive features.
To support the other promotional efforts, firms use _____ to generate "free" media attention.
Public relations activities support the other promotional efforts by the firm by generating "free" media attention.
According to your text, sales promotions such as free samples and point-of-purchase displays are designed to build
Many sales promotions, like free samples or point-of-purchase displays, are designed to build short-term sales. Others, like contests and sweepstakes, are used as a means to build customer loyalty.
Personalized e-mail marketing is an online, passive form of persuasive communication and would be classified as an example of
Personalized e-mail is a form of direct marketing that is directed to a specific consumer.
Omaha Steaks sending e-mail coupons for items that customers have purchased previously and mailing slick pictures of gourmet steaks and meal packages to addresses that have received orders in the past is an example of
Traditional direct marketing includes mail and catalogs sent through the mail; direct marketing also includes e-mail and mobile marketing.
Customers can use the Internet to share their opinions about products and services via YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter. In doing so, they can help facilitate the consumer decision process through use of
Social media is media content distributed through social interactions. Social media allows users to interact among themselves, as well as provide other like-minded consumers and marketers their thoughts and evaluations about a firm's products or services.
The _____ method determines the budget required to undertake specific tasks to accomplish communication objectives.
The objective-and-task method determines the budget required to undertake specific tasks to accomplish communication objectives. To use this method, marketers first establish a set of communication objectives and then determine which media best reach the target market and how much it will cost to run the number and types of communications necessary to achieve the objectives.
What factors are used in the rule-of-thumb methods to determine the communication budget?
Prior sales and communication activities
Rule-of-thumb methods use prior sales and communication activities to determine the present communication budget. These methods are easy to implement but do have various limitations.
Since her firm's share of the market has increased from 2.5 to 3 percent, Allyson had determined she would set her share of communication expenses at 3 percent of sales, which is an example of the use of the _____ method.
In the competitive parity method, the communication budget is set so that the firm's share of communication expenses equals its share of the market.
Limitations of the _____ budgeting method include not allowing firms to exploit the unique opportunities or problems they confront in a market. If all competitors use this method to set communication budgets, their market shares will stay approximately the same over time.
The competitive parity method does not allow firms to exploit the unique opportunities or problems they confront in a market. If all competitors use this method to set communication budgets, their market shares will stay approximately the same over time.
Jacob determined one of the metrics he would use to gauge the level of exposure his marketing message had with his target market was the number of times the target was exposed to his message throughout the six weeks of the campaign, representing its
One of the metrics marketers measure is the frequency of exposure, which is how often the audience is exposed to a communication within a specified period of time.
Nathan gauged the level of exposure to his marketing campaign using the percentage of the target population exposed at least once to his advertisement, representing its
Marketers can measure consumers' exposure to marketing communications through reach, which indicates the percentage of the target population exposed to a specific marketing communication, such as an advertisement, at least once.
Which of the following formulas is accurate for calculating gross rating points?
Reach multiplied by frequency
Gross rating points represents reach multiplied by frequency.
Google's AdWords system provides a Quality Score as a measure of _____, which indicates the usefulness of an ad message to consumers doing a Google search.
Google provides a measure of relevance through its AdWords system using a Quality Score. The relevance of the ad describes how useful an ad message is to the consumer doing the search.
_____ is (are) the number of times an ad appears in front of the user.
Impressions are the number of times an ad appears in front of the user.
If a sponsored link was delivered 100 times and 10 people clicked on it, then the number of impressions is 100, the number of clicks is 10, and the click-through-rate would be
Click-through rate (CTR) is calculated by taking the number of times a user clicks on an ad divided by the number of impressions. In this example, the CTR would be 10 percent.
Impressions are the number of times an ad appears in front of the user.
It is used to sell only products.
There are important distinctions between advertising and other forms of promotion: Advertising is not free; it must be carried by some medium; legally, the source of the message must be known or knowable; and it represents a persuasive form of communication designed to get the consumer to take some action, but not necessarily to buy a product. The action could also be for a public service message such as "Don't drink and drive."
Which of the following is the first step in planning and executing an advertising campaign?
Identify the target market.
The first step in planning and executing an advertising campaign is for firms to identify their target audience, so they can set the tone for the advertising program and help them select the media they will use to deliver the message to that audience.
A(n) _____ is a subsection of the firm's overall marketing plan that explicitly analyzes the marketing and advertising situation, identifies the objectives of the advertising campaign, clarifies a specific strategy for accomplishing those objectives, and indicates how the firm can determine whether the campaign was successful.
An advertising plan is a subsection of the firm's overall marketing plan that explicitly analyzes the marketing and advertising situation, identifies the objectives of the advertising campaign, clarifies a specific strategy for accomplishing those objectives, and indicates how the firm can determine whether the campaign was successful.
It is in the _____ step of the process of developing an advertising campaign that the metrics are articulated against which advertising success or failure is measured.
set the advertising objectives
Advertising campaign objectives are derived from the overall objectives of the marketing program and clarify the specific goals that the ads are designed to accomplish. This step is crucial because it will later serve as the yardstick against which advertising success or failure is measured.
When introducing new products, Quaker Oats uses a(n) _____ strategy by offering retailers discounts on the products along with point-of-purchase displays to motivate them to highlight the product.
Push strategies are designed to increase demand by focusing on wholesalers, retailers, or salespeople. These campaigns attempt to motivate the seller to highlight the product, rather than the products of competitors, and thereby push the product to consumers.
When a company wants to create and build brand awareness, it would use _____ advertising.
Informative advertising is a communication used to create and build brand awareness, with the ultimate goal of moving the consumer through the buying cycle to a purchase.
Firms often use _____ advertising to convince consumers to take action such as switching brands, trying a new product, or even continuing to buy the advertised product.
When a product has gained a certain level of brand awareness, firms use persuasive advertising to motivate consumers to take action, such as switching brands, trying a new product, or even continuing to buy the advertised product.
_______ advertising generally occurs in the growth and early maturity stages of the product life cycle, when competition is most intense, and attempts to accelerate the market's acceptance of the product.
When a product has gained a certain level of brand awareness, generally in the growth and early maturity stages of the product life cycle, firms use persuasive advertising to motivate consumers to take action.
As a product in the maturity stage of its life cycle, chewing gum brands would most likely require the use of _____ advertising to prompt purchases.
Reminder advertising is communication used to remind or prompt repurchases, especially for products that have gained market acceptance and are in the maturity stage of their life cycle.
The "Beef, It's What's for Dinner" campaign to encourage beef consumption is an example of _____ advertising.
Institutional advertisements inform, persuade, or remind consumers about issues related to places, politics, or an industry.
The "Indoor Tanning Is Out" campaign is designed to raise awareness of the increased risk of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, and decrease usage of tanning salons. This is an example of a(n) _____ advertisement.
Public service advertisements (PSAs) focus on public welfare; generally they are sponsored by nonprofit institutions, civic groups, religious organizations, trade associations, or political groups.
_______ is a tool used to communicate the distinct attributes of a product; it can be used as a slogan or a theme and often becomes a snapshot of the entire advertising campaign.
A unique selling proposition
A common strategy used by marketers is to differentiate a product by establishing its unique benefits through a unique selling proposition (USP), which is often the common theme or slogan in an advertising campaign. A good USP communicates the unique attributes of the product and thereby becomes a snapshot of the entire campaign. For example, Oreo . . . Milk's Favorite Cookie.
ExxonMobil uses a(n) _____ appeal when it explains technical aspects of its products, such as lithium ion batteries, hydrogen technology, biofuels, and CO2 capture technologies.
ExxonMobil attempts to explain some technical aspects of its products, such as lithium ion batteries, hydrogen technology, biofuels, and CO2 capture technologies, in an attempt to convince consumers that the company is environmentally friendly, efficient, innovative, and responsible.
Bowflex and Jenny Craig develop advertisements featuring celebrities to address their target markets' need for feeling good about themselves. This is an example of which of the following?
Emotional appeals focus on feelings about the self, so advertisements for Bowflex and Jenny Craig use emotional appeals that feature celebrities or regular people talking about how much better they feel about themselves after they've joined the program and lost weight.
As a means to reach large numbers of anonymous audience members, USA Today newspapers are considered to be which of the following types of media?
Mass media channels include national newspapers, magazines, radio, and television and are ideal for reaching large numbers of anonymous audience members.
HGTV and Dwell magazine fall into which of the following categories of media?
Specialty television channels like HGTV and specialty magazines such as Dwell are examples of niche media—channels that are more focused and generally used to reach a narrower audience.
Coppertone uses a _____ advertising schedule, where it advertises heavily in the months leading up to and during the summer, with no advertising after the season ends.
Flighting refers to an advertising schedule implemented in spurts, with periods of heavy advertising followed by periods of no advertising. This pattern generally functions for products whose demand fluctuates, such as suntan lotion, which manufacturers may advertise heavily in the months leading up to and during the summer.
IKEA advertises throughout the year, but significantly increases its advertising during the back-to-school time frame, thus implementing a _____ advertising schedule.
Pulsing combines the continuous and flighting schedules by maintaining a base level of advertising but increasing advertising intensity during certain periods. For example, the furniture retailer IKEA advertises throughout the year but boosts its advertising expenditures to promote school supplies in August.
In a print advertisement, items used to identify the sponsor of the ad, such as the company logo or USP, are referred to as
The use of brand elements, such as a logo or a unique selling proposition, helps identify the sponsor of the ad.
Assessing the effectiveness of an advertising campaign while it is running by monitoring key indicators is referred to as
The effectiveness of an advertising campaign must be assessed before, during, and after the campaign has run. Tracking includes monitoring key indicators, such as daily or weekly sales volume, while the advertisement is running to shed light on any problems with the message or the medium.
The _____ enforces truth in advertising laws and defines deceptive and unfair advertising practices.
Federal Trade Commission
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the primary enforcement agency for most mass media advertising. The agency enforces truth in advertising laws and defines deceptive and unfair advertising practices.
The slogans "Coolest Video Game" and "World's Best Hamburgers" are examples of _____, which is the legal exaggeration of praise, stopping just short of deception, lavished on a product.
Puffery is the legal exaggeration of praise, stopping just short of deception, lavished on a product. In this example the words coolest and best are subjective measures.
In many cases, _____ activities support other promotional efforts by generating "free" media attention and general goodwill.
Public relations (PR) involves managing communications and relationships to achieve various objectives, such as building and maintaining a positive image of the firm, handling or heading off unfavorable stories or events, and maintaining positive relationships with the media. In many cases, public relations activities support other promotional efforts by generating "free" media attention and general goodwill.
When two or more firms join to reach a specific target market, it is referred to as
To achieve a successful cross-promotion, the two products must appeal to the same target market and together create value for consumers.
As a type of sales promotion, _____ encourage trial and reduce consumer risk, although they may negatively impact perceptions of brand value.
Deals encourage trial and reduce consumer risk, but they may reduce perception of value.
A _____ offers an item for free or at a bargain price to reward some type of behavior, such as buying, sampling, or testing.
A premium offers an item for free or at a bargain price to reward some type of behavior, such as buying, sampling, or testing.
A form of sales promotion that offers prizes based on a chance drawing of entrants' names is referred to as a
Sweepstakes do not require the entrant to complete a task other than buying a ticket or filling out a form.
The Holiday Inn Priority Club is an example of _____, which is specifically designed to retain customers by offering premiums or other incentives to customers who make multiple purchases over time.
a loyalty program
Loyalty programs are specifically designed to retain customers by offering premiums or other incentives to customers who make multiple purchases over time.
An example of _____ is when Tom Hanks is shown stranded on an island with a FedEx box in the movie Cast Away
When marketers use product placement, they pay to have their product included in nontraditional situations, such as in a scene in a movie or television program.
J. Crew teaming up with several famous brands, including Belstaff and Timex, to offer exclusive products in the J. Crew stores and on its website is an example of
Cross-promoting is when two or more firms join together to reach a specific target market.
_____ is the two-way flow of communication between a buyer or buyers and a seller that is designed to influence the buyer's purchase decision.
Personal selling is the two-way flow of communication between a buyer or buyers and a seller that is designed to influence the buyer's purchase decision and can take place in various situations: face-to-face, via video teleconferencing, on the telephone, or over the Internet.
According to your text, which of the following is a reason why many people enjoy personal selling as a career?
It features variety and flexibility.
The variety of personal selling attracts many people to the profession. Every day is different, bringing different clients and customers, often in a variety of places. Salespeople tend to be responsible for planning their own day; this flexibility translates into an easier balance between work and family.
Personal selling adds value in each of the following ways except by
consistently lowering prices below competitors
Personal selling adds value by educating customers and providing advice, saving the customer time, making things easier for customers, and building long-term strategic relationships with customers.
When UPS decides to add to its fleet of planes, Boeing's sales team can address technical aspects of its new aircraft as well as assist in the economic justification for the purchase. In this way, Boeing adds value most directly by
providing information and advice.
When UPS invests in a new fleet of airplanes, it benefits from Boeing's selling team because the team can provide UPS with the technical aspects of the aircraft, as well as the economic justification for the purchase. Salespeople can be invaluable in terms of the information they can provide.
When the National Association of Realtors's national awareness campaign emphasizes that realtors know how to more efficiently market a client's property than an owner can by himself, it is highlighting which value of personal selling?
Saving time and simplify buying
The National Association of Realtors's national awareness campaign is highlighting the fact that they can save time and simplify buying. The realtor can more efficiently and effectively do a market analysis, take care of the legal aspects of the contract, and generally bring in qualified buyers based on his or her training and experience.
The sales philosophy and process that emphasizes a commitment to maintaining customer relationships over the long term and investing in opportunities that are mutually beneficial to all parties is known as _______ selling.
Relationship-oriented salespeople work with their customers to find mutually beneficial solutions to their wants and needs. This is the essence of relationship selling.
Evaluating a list of prospective customers and assessing their potential to purchase a product is called
After a list of potential customers has been generated, they must be qualified—assessed for their potential to purchase a product.
Salespeople who already have an established relationship with a customer will skip this step; it is not used extensively in retail settings, but it is in B2B situations.
Generate and qualify leads
Salespeople who already have an established relationship with a customer will skip the step of generating and qualifying leads, and it is not used extensively in retail settings. In B2B situations, however, it is important to work continually to find new and potentially profitable customers.
The annual International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas is an example of a(n) _____ show, which is an event attended by buyers who choose to be exposed to products and services offered by potential suppliers in an industry.
A trade show is an event attended by buyers who choose to be exposed to products and services offered by potential suppliers in an industry.
_____ is a method of prospecting where salespeople telephone or go to see potential customers without appointments.
Cold calls are a method of prospecting in which sales people telephone or go to see potential customers without appointments. Telemarketing is similar to cold calling, but it always occurs over the telephone.
After the salesperson has learned about the customer during the qualification stage, in the _____ step additional research is conducted and plans are made for meeting with the customer.
Although the salesperson has learned about the customer during the qualification stage, in the preapproach step he or she must conduct additional research and develop plans for meeting with the customer.
According to your text, which of the following may be the most important part of the entire selling process as it allows the salesperson to establish exactly where the customer is in his or her buying process?
At the beginning of the sales presentation
During the first part of the sales meeting, the salesperson needs to get to know the customer, get his or her attention, and create interest in the presentation to follow. The beginning of the presentation may be the most important part of the entire selling process, because it is when the salesperson establishes exactly where the customer is in his or her buying process.
Although reservations on the part of the buyer can arise during each stage of the selling process, they are very likely to occur during the
Although reservations can arise during each stage of the selling process, they are very likely to occur during the sales presentation.
The _____ step in the selling process is often stressful for salespeople, since one of the possible outcomes is that the salesperson goes away empty-handed.
closing the sale
Without a successful close, the salesperson goes away empty-handed, so many salespeople find this part of the sales process very stressful. Although losing a sale is never pleasant, salespeople who are involved in a relationship with their customers must view any particular sales presentation as part of the progression toward ultimately making the sale.
During the follow-up stage, which service quality dimension is being addressed when customers are given adequate guarantees that their purchases will perform as expected?
Customers must be assured through adequate guarantees that their purchases will perform as expected. This is the service quality dimension known as assurance.
The _____ offers a prime opportunity for a salesperson to solidify the customer relationship through great service quality.
The attitudes customers develop after the sale become the basis for how they purchase in the future. The follow-up, therefore, offers a prime opportunity for a salesperson to solidify the customer relationship through great service quality.
The planning, direction, and control of personal selling activities, including recruiting, selecting, training, motivating, compensating, and evaluating, as they apply to the sales force is part and parcel of
Sales management involves the planning, direction, and control of personal selling activities, including recruiting, selecting, training, motivating, compensating, and evaluating, as they apply to the sales force.
Salespeople who sell a manufacturer's products on an extended contract basis but are not employees of the manufacturer are known as
Manufacturer's reps are salespeople who sell a manufacturer's products on an extended contract basis but are not employees of the manufacturer. They are compensated by commissions and do not take ownership or physical possession of the merchandise.
A salesperson whose primary responsibilities are identifying potential customers and engaging those customers in discussions to attempt to make a sale is called a(n)
An order getter is a salesperson whose primary responsibilities are identifying potential customers and engaging those customers in discussions to attempt to make a sale.
A(n) _____ is a salesperson whose primary responsibility is to process routine orders, reorders, or rebuys for products.
An order taker is a salesperson whose primary responsibility is to process routine orders, reorders, or rebuys for products.
When Best Buy customers experience computer problems, the company offers its Geek Squad for door-to-door service as well as in-store assistance. The Geek Squad fulfills the role of
sales support personnel.
Sales support personnel enhance and help with the overall selling effort. For example, if a Best Buy customer begins to experience computer problems, the company has a Geek Squad door-to-door service as well as support in the store.
Jack attempted to close a sale with a new customer. Unfortunately, the customer did not purchase anything from Jack; however, he learned some valuable information about this customer and is determined to continue calling on him until he finally does get a sale. Which personality trait is Jack most likely exhibiting?
Good salespeople are resilient; they don't easily take no for an answer, and they keep coming back until they get a yes.
A desirable personal trait of good salespeople is _____, where they care about their customers, their issues, and their problems.
Good salespeople must have empathy; they should care about their customers, their issues, and their problems.
Managers and sales experts have identified each of the following personal traits as most important when recruiting salespeople. Which of the following is not one of those traits?
Managers and sales experts have identified each of the following personal traits as most important when recruiting salespeople: personality, optimism, empathy, resilience, and self-motivation.
Which of the following is a form of salesperson compensation whereby payment is based on sales volume or profitability?
A commission is financial compensation paid as a percentage of a salesperson's sales volume or profitability.
Which of the following is an effective form of nonfinancial compensation provided to salespeople?
Awards, plaques, pens, rings, and free trips or days off are all effective nonfinancial rewards.
To maintain trustworthy customer relationships, companies must take care that they respect the _____ comfort zone—that is, the amount of information a customer feels comfortable providing.
To maintain trustworthy customer relationships, companies must take care that they respect the information comfort zone—that is, the amount of information a customer feels comfortable providing.
Equal employment opportunity laws make it unlawful to discriminate against a person in hiring, promotion, or firing because of race, religion, nationality, sex, or
Under equal employment opportunity laws, it is unlawful to discriminate against a person in hiring, promotion, or firing due to race, religion, nationality, sex, or age.
If an insurance company encourages its salespeople to intentionally mislead potential customers about damage from flooding due to hurricane damage, who could be susceptible to legal action for the deceptive practice?
The insurance company and the salesperson
If a homeowner asks if the home is above the floodplain or whether water damage from flooding is covered by the policy, and it is company policy to intentionally mislead potential customers, both the salesperson and the insurance company could be susceptible to legal action.
Most important in dealing with ethical and legal issues between the customer and the salesperson is for sales managers to
lead by example.
It is most important for sales managers to lead by example. If managers are known to cut ethical corners in their dealings with customers, it shouldn't surprise them when their salespeople do the same.