81 terms

History of the Church// Ch. 1 & 2

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Terms in this set (...)

Apostle
Comes from the greek word "apostolos" means one who sent, refers to the twelve men to be Jesus' closest followers
Apologist
One who writes a work to defend and explain the Christian religion especially during the second and third centuries in the Roman Empire
Church
The Body of Christ and the Temple of the Holy Spirit comes from a Greek word meaning "thing belonging to the Lord"
Church History
The life of Jesus, the actions of men, and the guiding actions of the Holy Spirit acting in the Church
Didache
From the Greek word "teaching" a first century treatise concerning Christian morals covers Church teachings and the hierarchy
Episcopacy
The office of bishops that engaged themselves to all the sacramental works of the Church
ICHTHYS
A symbol for the Greek phrase "Iesous Christos" spells out "fish" in Greek
Infant Baptism
The practice of baptizing infants that became common in the third century and universal by early Medieval times
Papacy
The Vicar of Christ as instituted by Jesus who holds all the responsibility and supreme authority for guiding the Church
Presbyter
From the Greek word "presbyteros" for "priest." In the early Church presbyters were church elders
Be able to explain the significance of the following:
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Pentecost
Pentecost is the birthday of the Church. The Holy Spirit came down on the Apostles and enabled them to speak many languages, and gave them the courage to preach the Gospels.
Jewish Background of Christianity
Early Christians still observed the Mosaic Law and Jewish Holy Days. They incorporated many of Christ's teachings into their worship and practices though.
St. Paul the Apostle
St. Paul was known as Saul before he was converted. Paul was known as the "Apostle to the Gentiles" for all the work he did in converting them to the Christian faith. Paul became a brilliant writer and Scripture contains 13 of his works. St. Paul was key in spreading the Gospels as well.
The Council of Jerusalem
The Council of Jerusalem determined what of parts of the Mosaic Law the Gentile Christians had to follow. After controversy of Judaizers saying Gentiles had to follow the whole law, and Sts. Peter and Paul said they didn't the council came to a decision. The Gentiles didn't have to follow the whole law, only that parts saying avoiding meat and blood of animals sacrificed to idols or strangled and unlawful marriage.
Baptism (especially who received the sacrament and how that changed)
In the Early Church, the ones becoming Christian were adults, so infant baptism wasn't common. It became more and more common for whole families to convert, including the young ones. In times of danger, a baptized or unbaptized person can administer the sacrament
The Celebration of the Eucharist in the Early Church
Before people went to celebrate the Eucharist, a common practice was Agape. Agape was when a group of people would gather for a meal before Mass. Overtime, it became to much of a party and Agape was discontinued. The ritual of the Mass always included the Eucharist, despite it not including things we have today.
Holy Days
For early Christians, the days of fasting were Wednesdays and Fridays. These were selected because of Spy Wednesday and Good Friday. Originally, Saturdays were for attending Mass because that was what the Jews did, but it was replaced by Sunday for the Resurrection.
Papacy, Episcopacy and Presbyterate in the Early Church
The Papacy, Episcopacy and Presbyterate were the first signs of a Pope, Bishops and Priests in the Early Church. The Papacy was, and still is, how the Vicar of Christ was referred to. The Episcopacy was first created to give the Pope help in administering the sacraments, but quickly evolved into Bishops. The Presbyterate were the first priests, and traditionally Church elders. The current priesthood was developed over many centuries.
The Development of the Canon of Scripture
The current Canon of Scripture took a while to develop. The Old Testament Canon was finalized in 382 A.D. The New Testament Canon of Scripture was finalized after the Council of Trent in 1546 A.D.
Martyrdom of the Early Christians
Many early Christians had to accept the fact that they easily could be martyred. If the chance of martyrdom came, they would accept it with peace and serenity. The early Martyrs quickly became saints.
12 apostles:
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andrew
Bartholomew
James the Greater
James the Lesser
Jude
John
Matthew
Matthias
Paul
Peter
Phillip
simon
Thomas
...
be able to define:
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Anathema
A ban solemnly pronounced by ecclesiastical authority and accompanied by excommunication
Apostasy
The willful renunciation of the Faith in its entirety
Church Fathers
Great, holy leaders who have come forward to lead the Church, explain the Faith and meet the unique challenges posed by different heresies
Ecumenical Council
Brings bishops and others from around the world to vote and discuss the central issues of the Church. Presided by over the Church
Heresy
The refusal to accept one or more of the truths which are required for Catholic belief.
Theotokos
Translates to "bearer of god" a name for Mary that was used in the early centuries
Vulgate
First translation of the Bible into Latin by St. Jerome
What are the first four ecumenical counsels
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First Council of Nicea (325 A.D.)
The Nicene Creed was created to protect from Arianism.
First Council of Constantinople (381 A.D.)
Concern was with the divinity of the Holy Spirit
Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.)
Concern was with Nestorianism and Mary as the Mother of God
Council of Chaldedon (451 A.D.)
Concern was over Monophysitism
Be able to name the Church Fathers and know facts about them :
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St. Ignatius of Antioch
Oldest Church Father closest to the time of the Apostles; knew John the Apostle and close to St. Peter, first to use the term "Catholic Church", wrote about the Eucharist
St. Polycarp
Knew John the Apostle, important link to the Apostles and many Christians, Bishop of Smyrna
St. Justin Martyr
Excellent Apologist, converted at the age of 30, wrote important descriptions about the rituals of Baptism and the Eucharist, died under Marcus Aurelius
St. Irenaeus
A disciple of Polycarp, fought heresies (especially Gnosticism), emphasised the importance of the episcopacy, Sacred Scripture and Tradition
St. Ambrose
Fervorous opponent of the Arian heresy. Defended the Church's independence from the state.
St. Jerome
Translated the Bible into Latin, his work was called the Vulgate
St. John Chrysostom
Preacher and commentator on the Bible, wrote On the Priesthood
St. Athanasius
Bishop of Alexandria, refused to tolerate Arianism
St. Hilary of Poiters
Latin Church Father during Arianism, leading theologian
St. Basil the Great
Defender of heresies, worked for clerical rights and cared for the laity
St. Gregory of Nazianen
Devoted writing to the Holy Spirit. Important at Constantinople.
St. Gregory of Nyssa
Brother of Basil. Defended Theotokos
St. Cyril of Alexandria
Patriarch of Alexandria, a Doctor of the Church
St. Leo the Great
Father and Doctor of the Church, great leader during heresies, gave great moral authority
St. Augustine
One of the greatest Theologians of all time, led a sinful life before turning to the faith, student of St. Thomas Aquinas
Pope St. Sixtus
Lived during the time of Emperor Valerian, made sure all the bishops, priests, and deacons were executed
St. Lawrence
Authorities demanded that he bring all the Church's gold to them. He declined and was grilled to death
Be able to explain the significance of the following:
...
Persecution under Nero and Diocletian
Nero was incredibly cruel. He covered Christians with pitch, lined them up on the gates and set them on fire. Diocletian issued four new laws against Christians. Thousands were martyred. Both emperors were insanely cruel towards Christians
Persecution under the other Roman emperors until Constantine
Up until Constantine, the emperors had been martyring Christians and killing them for no reason other than their faith. The only exception was Marcus Aurelius, who ended mobs killing the Christians. Constantine made Christianity legal.
Edict of Milan
The Edict of Milan was a victory for Christians. It declared that any Church property that was taken by the government from the Church was to be given back to the Church and the Christians. It also made Christianity legal and granted freedom of religion.
Arian Heresy and the First Council of Nicea
The Council of Nicea was pushed for by Emperor Constantine. Constantine pushed for this council b/c of the Arian Heresy. At the Council of Nicea, the Nicene Creed was created to get rid of the Arian Heresy.
The outcomes of the Council of Ephesus and the Council of Chalcedon
The outcome of the Council of Ephesus was that Jesus is one person, not two separate people. It also decreed that Mary is Theotokos. The outcome of the Council of Chalcedon was the approval of the Nicene Creed
What is contained in the Nicene Creed
In the Nicene Creed all of the Dogma's of the Church are present. The Nicene Creed was created to prevent heresies and is a proclamation of the faith.
Influence of St. Augustine
Augustine was a sinner before turning to the faith. He is a doctor and father of the Church. His autobiography is still widely read today and considered a classic. Augustine understood the Sacraments to a very high decree and his teachings dominated the church for 800 years.
Be able to explain what is wrong with the following heresies:
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Apollinarianism- denied the existence of a human mind and will in Christ
Jesus is human. He is 100% man. Jesus had a human mind and will because he chose to die for us.
Arianism- Heresy of the priest, Arius, that claimed that Jesus was neither God nor equal to the Father, but an exceptional creature who was raised to the level of "Son of God"
Jesus is God and is equal to the Father. He is not an "exceptional creature" but God. He is one hundred percent divine and God.
Docetism- also a branch of gnosticism; maintained that Jesus was not truly human and did not actually suffer or die on the cross
Jesus is one hundred percent human and one hundred percent divine. Jesus He died on the cross and their were hundreds of witnesses to see Him die.
Donatism- rejected the validity of sacraments celebrated by priests and bishops who had formerly betrayed their faith
Priests and bishops that betrayed the faith are still priests and bishops, so the sacraments they celebrate are valid
Gnosticism- secret knowledge regarding God and the origin and the destiny of man had been given to a select few; viewed spiritual as good, matter as bad
God will save everybody. No one has more knowledge on how to be saved than anyone else. The Scriptures tell us that everyone will get saved.
Manichaeism- branch of gnosticism; also dualistic
God does not have two natures. He is completely good and allows everyone to gain access to Heaven. There is no group of special people that have access to the special knowledge of Heaven.
Marcionism- Viewed God of the Old Testament as cruel, God of New Testament as God of love; dualistic
God was never cruel and always good. People may have depicted God as cruel but He could never be that way. Human nature can't fully understand God so that is why this heresy may have came about.
Monophytism- claimed there was only one nature in Christ, the divine nature
Christ has two natures. He has both a divine nature and a human nature. He has both natures as opposed to only one.
Monothelitism-claimed that there was only one will in Christ, the divine will
Christ has two wills to go with his two natures. He has both a human and divine nature instead of just one.
Montanism- held that Christians who had fallen from grace could never be redeemed; was an apocalyptic movement
Christians can come back from a mortal sin. Christians can deny grace, but never lose it. Even if we do reject grace, God allows us to receive it some other time and come back to the faith.
Nestorianism- rejected the Marian title Theotokos saying that Jesus was the result of the union of two separate persons, one man and one God
Mary is the true mother of God. Therefore, the term Theotokos is correct. He is one person, fully man and fully God.
Pelagianism- advocated that man can be redeemed and sanctified without grace; it also denied the existence of original sin
When you get baptized, Original Sin is taken away. Therefore, Original Sin exists. We need grace to be saved and to get to Heaven. Grace is God's life in us, and we need God's life to get to Heaven.
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