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Unit 3 Exam Review Material

Federal Bureaucracy

the thousands of federal government agencies and institutions that implement and administer federal laws and programs

Spoils System

the firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party and their replacement with loyalists of the newly elected party


Jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support.

Merit System

the system of employing and promoting civil servants on the basis of ability, rather than party loyalty.

Pendleton Act

reform measure that established the principle of federal employment on the basis of open, competitive exams and created the civil service commission

Civil Service System

the merit system by which many federal bureaucrats are selected

Independent Regulatory Commission

an entity created by congress outside a major executive department


Major administrative units with responsibility for a broad area of government operations. Departmental status usually indicates a permanent national interest in a particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture.

Independent Executive Agencies

Governmental units that closely resemble a Cabinet department but have narrower areas of responsibility, and perform services rather than regulatory functions

Government Corporations

businesses established by congress to perform functions that could be provided by private businesses

Hatch Act

the 1939 act to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns. this act prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular party, or campaigning for a particular candidate

Federal Employees Political Activities Act of 1993

the 1993 liberalization of the hatch act. federal employees are not allowed to run for office in nonpartisan elections and to contribute money to campaigns in partisan elections


the process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy

Iron Triangles

the relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among an agency, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees

Issue Networks

The loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas

Interagency Councils

Working groups created to facilitate coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of governmental agencies.

Administrative Discretion

the ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional or executive intentions

Rule Making

a quasi-legislative process that results in regulations that have the characteristics of a legislative act


rules that govern the operation of a particular government program that have the force of law

Administrative Adjudication

a quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes

Executive Order

a rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. All executive orders must be published in the Federal Register.

Foreign Policy

area of policy-making that encompasses how one country builds relationships with other countries in order to safeguard its national interests

Defense policy

area of policy-making that focuses on the strategies that a country uses to protect itself from its enemies


a national policy of avoiding participation in foreign affairs

Embargo Act

Legislation passed by congress in 1807 to prevent US ships from leaving US ports without the approval of the federal government

Monroe Doctrine

president james monroes 1823 pledge that the United States would oppose attempts by european states to extend their political control into the western hemisphere


taxes on imported goods

manifest destiny

theory that the United States was divinely mandated to expand across North America to the Pacific Ocean

Roosevelt Corollary

concept developed by president theodore roosevelt early in the 20th century declaring that it was the responsibility of the US to assure stability in latin america and the caribbean

Collective security

the idea that an attack on one country is an attack on all countries

Bretton Woods System

international financial system devised shortly before the end of WWII that created the world bank and the international monetary fund

International Monetary Fund

international governmental organization created shortly before the end of WWII to stabilize international currency transactions

World Bank

international governmental organization created shortly before the end of WWII to provide loans for large economic development projects

General Agreenment on Tariffs and Trade

Post-WWII economic development program designed to help facilitate international trade negotiations and promote free trade

Truman Doctrine

US policy initiated in 1947 to provide economic assistance and military aid to countries fighting against communist revolutions or political pressure

Marshall Plan

European collective recovery program, named after secretary of state George C. Marshall, that provided extensive american aid to western europe after WWII

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

the first peacetime military treaty joined by the US; NATO is a collective security pact between the US and western europe

Cuban Missile Crisis

the 1962 confrontation over the deployment of ballistic missiles in cuba that nearly escalated to war between the US and the Soviet Union


the improvement in relations between the US and the Soviet Union that occured during the 1970s

Human Rights

the protection of peoples basic freedoms and needs

Reagan Doctrine

the reagan administrations commitment to ending communism by providing military assistance to anti-communist groups


policy implemented during the clinton administration in which the US would actively promote the expansion of democracy and free markets throughout the world

War on Terrorism

an international action, initiated by president George W. Bush after the 9/11 attacks, to weed out terrorists operatives throughout the world

Department of state

cheif executive branch department responsible for formulation and implementation of US foreign policy

Department of Defense

cheif executive branch responsible for formulation adn implementation of US defense and military policy

Joint Cheifs of Staff

Military advisory body that includes the Army cheif of staff, the Air Force cheif of staff, the cheif of naval operations, and the Marine commandant

Department of Homeland Security

cabinet department created after the 9/11 terrorists attacks to coordinate domestic security efforts

War Powers Act

passed by congress in 1973; the president is limited in the deployment of troops overseas to a sixty-day period in peacetime (which can be extended for an extra thirty days to permit withdrawal) unless congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer period

Military-Industrial Complex

the alliance formed by the US armed forces and defense industries


a trade policy wherein a country closes off its markets to foreign goods

Strategic Trade Policy

a trade policy wherein governments identify key industries that they wish to see grow and enact policies to support this economic enlargement

Free Trade System

a system of international trade with limited government interference

North American Free Trade Agreement

agreement that promotes free movement of goods and services among canada, mexico, and the US

World Trade Organization

an international organization created in 1995 to supervise and open international trade

avoid permanent alliances

In his 1796 Farewell Address, George Washington suggested that the United States


the strategy of opposing soviet expansion with military forces, economic assistance, and political influence was known as

the framers intended to

divide foreign policy powers between the congress and the president

Health Care

which of the following is not a major foreign policy challenge facing the United States

Powell Doctrine

the power to coerce, or to make another country do what the United States wants, is known as


a french term meaning "to allow to do, to leave alone." It holds that active governmental involvement in the economy is wrong

Business Cycles

fluctuations between periods of economic growth and recession (or periods of boom or bust)


changes to political landscape, led to industrial accidents/disease/labor-management conflicts/unemployment/ and made business cycle worse

Interstate Commerce Act in 1887

required that railroad rates should be "just and reasonable." and prohibited rate agreements, rate discrimination, charging more for a short haul than a long haul

Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890

prohibited all restraints of trade, including price-fixing, bid-rigging, market allocation agreements, monopolization or attempts to monopolize (including domination of a market by one company or a few companies

Progressive Movement

drew much of its support from the middle class and sought to reform americas political, economic, and social system

Helped Food

Pure Food and Drug Act & the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (prohibited adulteration, mislabeling, and set ssanitary standards)

Federal Reserve Act of 1913

created the Federal Reserve System to regulate national banking system and to provide for flexibility in the money supply in order to better meet commercial needs and combat financial panics

Anti-Trust Policy strengthened

Federal Trade Commision Act and Clayton Act of 1914

Great Depression

Stock market collapsed October 1929

Sixteenth Amendment

allows the national government to begin to collect an income tax (1913)

Interventionist State

replaced Laissez-faire; government took an active role in guiding and regulating the private economy

New Deal

Franklin D. Roosevelts plan increases government intervention in a number of economic policy areas, including financial markets, agriculture, labor, and industry

Glass-Steagall Act (1933)

separation of commercial and investment banking and set up the FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) to insure bank deposits

Securities Act (1933)

required that prospective investors be given full and accurate information about the stocks or securities being offered to them

Securitites Exchange Act (1934)

created the securities and echange commission, authorized to regulate the stock exchanges, enforce the securities act, and reduce the number of stocks bought on margin (borrowed money)

Wagner Act

also known as the National Labor Relations Act; guarantees workers rights to organize and bargain collectively through unions of their own choosing

Fair Labor Standards Act

set minimum wage and maximum hour requirements; also banned child labor

Government Regulations

regulations of business practices, industry rates, routes, or areas serviced by particular industries

Social regulations

regulations of consumer protection, health and safety, and environmental protection


a reduction in market controls (such as price fixing, subsidies, or controls on who can enter the field) in favor of market-based competition

Fiscal Policy

the deliberate use of the national governments taxing and spending policies to maintain economic stability

Revenue Act

1964; signed into law by President LBJ; reduced personal and corporate income tax rates

Gross Domestic Product

the total market value of all goods and services produced in an area during a year


the primary purpose of this is to fund government programs

Fiscal Year

begins October 1 of one calender year and runs through September 30 of the following calender year

Budget Deficit

the economic condition that occurs when expeditures exceed revenues (ex: being in the red)


a rise in the general price levels of an economy

monetary policy

a form of government regulation in which the nations money supply and interest rates are controlled

Board of Governors

in the federal reserve system, a seven-member board that makes most economic decisions regarding interest rates and the supply of money

Federal Reserve System

is made up of a board, FOMC (open market committee), 12 banks across the country and then a few member banks

Tools of Monetary Policy

setting reserve requirements for member banks, control of the discount rate, and open market operations

Reserve Requirements

government requirements that a portion of member banks deposits be retained as backing for their loans

Discount Rate

the rate of interest at which the Federal Reserve Board lends money to member banks

Open Market Operations

the buying and selling of government securities by the Federal Reserve Bank

Social Security Act

a 1935 law that established old age insurance; assistance for the needy, aged, blind, and families with dependent children; and unemployment insurance

Civil Works Administration

was put together to employ people as quickly as possible and it reached its peak in 1934 when the program helped to employ 4 million people (critics claimed it was too political and disbanded)

Works Progress Administration

paid a wage of $55 dollars per month; helped rebuild public properties (playgrounds, schools), established that in extreme circumstances the government can be the last resort employer

Entitlement Programs

government benefits that all citizens meeting eligibility criteria-such as age, income level, or unemployment- are legally "entitled" to receive

Non-Means-Tested Programs

programs that provide cash assistance to qualified beneficiaries, regardless of income. Among these are social security and unemployment insurance

Means-Tested programs

programs that require that beneficiaries have incomes below specified levels to be eligible for benefits. Among these are SSI, TANF, and SNAP (food stamps).

Economic Stability

a situation in which there is economic growth, rising national income, high employment, and steadiness in the general level of prices


a decline in the economy that occurs as investment sags, production falls off, and unemployment increases


Through the 1950s, most regulatory programs enacted by the national government fell into the category of_______ regulation

passes a continuing resolution

When Congress does not complete its appropriations process by the end of the fiscal year, it usually

Reserve Requirement

The portion of a banks deposits that the bank must retain as backing for its loans is known as the

Means Tested programs

Income security programs intended to assist persons whose income falls below a designated level are called

the subprime mortgage crisis

much of the current economic downturn is attributable to

Public Policy

intentional course of action or inaction followed by government in dealing with some problem or matter of concern

Theories of Public Policy

Elite, Bureaucratic, Interest, Plurists

Elite Theory

power to make policy, unequal distribution of power is normal and inevitable

Bureaucratic Theory

dictates all institutions (government/non-governmental) have fallen under bureaucracy and carries out procedures, dominate, take power from officials

Interest Group Theory

control government process, so many points in government that this group can step into any one of them

Plurists Theory

too many political resources scattered so widely no group can monopoly one policy

Policy Making Process

Problem Recognition, Agenda Setting, Policy Formulation, Policy Adoption, Budgeting, Policy Implementation, Policy Evaluation

Problem Recognition

identification of an issue that disturbs the people and leads them to call for governmental intervention, criteria is circumstances that can be addressed by government action (ex: hurricane katrina FEMA)

Agenda Setting

government recognition that a problem is worthy of consideration for governmental intervention; constant process of forming the list of issues to be addressed


set of issues to be discussed or given attention

systemic agenda

discussion agenda; all subjects viewed as requiring public attention and as involving matters within the legitimate jurisdiction of governments

governmental/institutional agenda

problems to which public officials feel obliged to devote active and serious attention

Policy Formulation

identification of alternative approaches to addressing the problems placed on the agenda; crafting of proposed courses of action to resolve public problems

different forms of formulation

Routine, Analogous, Creative

Routine Formulation

altering existing policy proposal or creating new proposals within an issue the government has preciously addressed

Analogous Formulation

new problems by drawing on experience with similar problems in the past or other jurisdictions

Creative Formulation

attempts to develop new or unprecedented proposals that represent a departure from existing practices and that will better resolve a problem

Policy Adoption

the formal selection of public policies through legislative, executive, judicial, and bureaucratic means; approval of a policy proposal by the people with requisite authority, such as cheif executive


this process allows president and the congress an opportunity to review policies/programs, monitor administration, value and effectiveness, exercise influence on conduct

Policy Implementation

process of carrying out public process; techniques are authoritative, incentive, capacity, hortatory


actions must be restrained to prevent things from being unsafe, unfair, evil or immoral (ex: safety regulations, radio restrictions)


encourage people to act in their own best interests by offering payoffs or bonuses (ex: tax deductions, higher taxes)


provide information, education, training, resources, or job training to help people participate in society


encourage people to use better instincts (ex: Dont Mess with Texas campaign to stop littering)

Policy Evaluation

determine whether a course of action is achieving its intended goals


federal program established during the LBJ administration that provides medical care to elderly social security recipients over the age of 65


a government program that subsidizes medical care for the poor (between national and state government)

John Dewey

an influential education reform advocate of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He advocated active and experiential learning

Education in the early days

was seen as a good way of instilling the moral values of the community in future generations by focusing on character traits and basic skills such as reading, writing, and arithmetic

Ben Franklins view of Education

legitimizing democratic institutions in the minds of young people and of establishing social and political order in the United States

Northwest Ordinance

set aside land for public schools to be established in 1787

National Defense Education Act of 1957

emphasized math and science in schools and then building weapon systems for scientists and engineers

Brown v. Board of Education

ruled segregation in schools were unconstitutional

Department of Education

established in 1979 under president Jimmy Carters term was built to monitor schools, establish curriculum and set up programs

Title IX

of the Educational Amendments of 1972 expanded educational and athletic opportunities for women

No Child Left Behind Act

education reform passed in 2002 that employs high standards and measurable goals as a method of improving american education

Charter Schools

are semi-public institutions that are run by universities, non-profits, or corporations. Although some may take private donations to help increase the quality of education

1970 First Earth Day

when millions of citizens took part in marches and rallies demanding greater government action to protect the environment

Clean Air Act of 1970

established national primary and secondary standards for air quality in the United States. A revised version was passed in 1990

President Ronald Reagan

did not continue the efforts to maintain clean air and water and actually took away government control of environmentalists issues

Global Warming

increase in global temperatures due to carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels such as coal and oil

Public Policy

The intentional course of action followed by government in dealing with problems or matters of concern is called

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