GOVERNMENT 2305 Chapter 8, 9, 18, &19

Unit 3 Exam Review Material
Federal Bureaucracy
the thousands of federal government agencies and institutions that implement and administer federal laws and programs
Spoils System
the firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party and their replacement with loyalists of the newly elected party
Jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support.
Merit System
the system of employing and promoting civil servants on the basis of ability, rather than party loyalty.
Pendleton Act
reform measure that established the principle of federal employment on the basis of open, competitive exams and created the civil service commission
Civil Service System
the merit system by which many federal bureaucrats are selected
Independent Regulatory Commission
an entity created by congress outside a major executive department
Major administrative units with responsibility for a broad area of government operations. Departmental status usually indicates a permanent national interest in a particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture.
Independent Executive Agencies
Governmental units that closely resemble a Cabinet department but have narrower areas of responsibility, and perform services rather than regulatory functions
Government Corporations
businesses established by congress to perform functions that could be provided by private businesses
Hatch Act
the 1939 act to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns. this act prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular party, or campaigning for a particular candidate
Federal Employees Political Activities Act of 1993
the 1993 liberalization of the hatch act. federal employees are not allowed to run for office in nonpartisan elections and to contribute money to campaigns in partisan elections
the process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy
Iron Triangles
the relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among an agency, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees
Issue Networks
The loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas
Interagency Councils
Working groups created to facilitate coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of governmental agencies.
Administrative Discretion
the ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional or executive intentions
Rule Making
a quasi-legislative process that results in regulations that have the characteristics of a legislative act
rules that govern the operation of a particular government program that have the force of law
Administrative Adjudication
a quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes
Executive Order
a rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. All executive orders must be published in the Federal Register.
Foreign Policy
area of policy-making that encompasses how one country builds relationships with other countries in order to safeguard its national interests
Defense policy
area of policy-making that focuses on the strategies that a country uses to protect itself from its enemies
a national policy of avoiding participation in foreign affairs
Embargo Act
Legislation passed by congress in 1807 to prevent US ships from leaving US ports without the approval of the federal government
Monroe Doctrine
president james monroes 1823 pledge that the United States would oppose attempts by european states to extend their political control into the western hemisphere
taxes on imported goods
manifest destiny
theory that the United States was divinely mandated to expand across North America to the Pacific Ocean
Roosevelt Corollary
concept developed by president theodore roosevelt early in the 20th century declaring that it was the responsibility of the US to assure stability in latin america and the caribbean
Collective security
the idea that an attack on one country is an attack on all countries
Bretton Woods System
international financial system devised shortly before the end of WWII that created the world bank and the international monetary fund
International Monetary Fund
international governmental organization created shortly before the end of WWII to stabilize international currency transactions
World Bank
international governmental organization created shortly before the end of WWII to provide loans for large economic development projects
General Agreenment on Tariffs and Trade
Post-WWII economic development program designed to help facilitate international trade negotiations and promote free trade
Truman Doctrine
US policy initiated in 1947 to provide economic assistance and military aid to countries fighting against communist revolutions or political pressure
Marshall Plan
European collective recovery program, named after secretary of state George C. Marshall, that provided extensive american aid to western europe after WWII
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
the first peacetime military treaty joined by the US; NATO is a collective security pact between the US and western europe
Cuban Missile Crisis
the 1962 confrontation over the deployment of ballistic missiles in cuba that nearly escalated to war between the US and the Soviet Union
the improvement in relations between the US and the Soviet Union that occured during the 1970s
Human Rights
the protection of peoples basic freedoms and needs
Reagan Doctrine
the reagan administrations commitment to ending communism by providing military assistance to anti-communist groups
policy implemented during the clinton administration in which the US would actively promote the expansion of democracy and free markets throughout the world
War on Terrorism
an international action, initiated by president George W. Bush after the 9/11 attacks, to weed out terrorists operatives throughout the world
Department of state
cheif executive branch department responsible for formulation and implementation of US foreign policy
Department of Defense
cheif executive branch responsible for formulation adn implementation of US defense and military policy
Joint Cheifs of Staff
Military advisory body that includes the Army cheif of staff, the Air Force cheif of staff, the cheif of naval operations, and the Marine commandant
Department of Homeland Security
cabinet department created after the 9/11 terrorists attacks to coordinate domestic security efforts
War Powers Act
passed by congress in 1973; the president is limited in the deployment of troops overseas to a sixty-day period in peacetime (which can be extended for an extra thirty days to permit withdrawal) unless congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer period
Military-Industrial Complex
the alliance formed by the US armed forces and defense industries
a trade policy wherein a country closes off its markets to foreign goods
Strategic Trade Policy
a trade policy wherein governments identify key industries that they wish to see grow and enact policies to support this economic enlargement
Free Trade System
a system of international trade with limited government interference
North American Free Trade Agreement
agreement that promotes free movement of goods and services among canada, mexico, and the US
World Trade Organization
an international organization created in 1995 to supervise and open international trade
avoid permanent alliances
In his 1796 Farewell Address, George Washington suggested that the United States
the strategy of opposing soviet expansion with military forces, economic assistance, and political influence was known as
the framers intended to
divide foreign policy powers between the congress and the president
Health Care
which of the following is not a major foreign policy challenge facing the United States
Powell Doctrine
the power to coerce, or to make another country do what the United States wants, is known as
a french term meaning "to allow to do, to leave alone." It holds that active governmental involvement in the economy is wrong
Business Cycles
fluctuations between periods of economic growth and recession (or periods of boom or bust)
changes to political landscape, led to industrial accidents/disease/labor-management conflicts/unemployment/ and made business cycle worse
Interstate Commerce Act in 1887
required that railroad rates should be "just and reasonable." and prohibited rate agreements, rate discrimination, charging more for a short haul than a long haul
Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890
prohibited all restraints of trade, including price-fixing, bid-rigging, market allocation agreements, monopolization or attempts to monopolize (including domination of a market by one company or a few companies
Progressive Movement
drew much of its support from the middle class and sought to reform americas political, economic, and social system
Helped Food
Pure Food and Drug Act & the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (prohibited adulteration, mislabeling, and set ssanitary standards)
Federal Reserve Act of 1913
created the Federal Reserve System to regulate national banking system and to provide for flexibility in the money supply in order to better meet commercial needs and combat financial panics
Anti-Trust Policy strengthened
Federal Trade Commision Act and Clayton Act of 1914
Great Depression
Stock market collapsed October 1929
Sixteenth Amendment
allows the national government to begin to collect an income tax (1913)
Interventionist State
replaced Laissez-faire; government took an active role in guiding and regulating the private economy
New Deal
Franklin D. Roosevelts plan increases government intervention in a number of economic policy areas, including financial markets, agriculture, labor, and industry
Glass-Steagall Act (1933)
separation of commercial and investment banking and set up the FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) to insure bank deposits
Securities Act (1933)
required that prospective investors be given full and accurate information about the stocks or securities being offered to them
Securitites Exchange Act (1934)
created the securities and echange commission, authorized to regulate the stock exchanges, enforce the securities act, and reduce the number of stocks bought on margin (borrowed money)
Wagner Act
also known as the National Labor Relations Act; guarantees workers rights to organize and bargain collectively through unions of their own choosing
Fair Labor Standards Act
set minimum wage and maximum hour requirements; also banned child labor
Government Regulations
regulations of business practices, industry rates, routes, or areas serviced by particular industries
Social regulations
regulations of consumer protection, health and safety, and environmental protection
a reduction in market controls (such as price fixing, subsidies, or controls on who can enter the field) in favor of market-based competition
Fiscal Policy
the deliberate use of the national governments taxing and spending policies to maintain economic stability
Revenue Act
1964; signed into law by President LBJ; reduced personal and corporate income tax rates
Gross Domestic Product
the total market value of all goods and services produced in an area during a year
the primary purpose of this is to fund government programs
Fiscal Year
begins October 1 of one calender year and runs through September 30 of the following calender year
Budget Deficit
the economic condition that occurs when expeditures exceed revenues (ex: being in the red)
a rise in the general price levels of an economy
monetary policy
a form of government regulation in which the nations money supply and interest rates are controlled
Board of Governors
in the federal reserve system, a seven-member board that makes most economic decisions regarding interest rates and the supply of money
Federal Reserve System
is made up of a board, FOMC (open market committee), 12 banks across the country and then a few member banks
Tools of Monetary Policy
setting reserve requirements for member banks, control of the discount rate, and open market operations
Reserve Requirements
government requirements that a portion of member banks deposits be retained as backing for their loans
Discount Rate
the rate of interest at which the Federal Reserve Board lends money to member banks
Open Market Operations
the buying and selling of government securities by the Federal Reserve Bank
Social Security Act
a 1935 law that established old age insurance; assistance for the needy, aged, blind, and families with dependent children; and unemployment insurance
Civil Works Administration
was put together to employ people as quickly as possible and it reached its peak in 1934 when the program helped to employ 4 million people (critics claimed it was too political and disbanded)
Works Progress Administration
paid a wage of $55 dollars per month; helped rebuild public properties (playgrounds, schools), established that in extreme circumstances the government can be the last resort employer
Entitlement Programs
government benefits that all citizens meeting eligibility criteria-such as age, income level, or unemployment- are legally "entitled" to receive
Non-Means-Tested Programs
programs that provide cash assistance to qualified beneficiaries, regardless of income. Among these are social security and unemployment insurance
Means-Tested programs
programs that require that beneficiaries have incomes below specified levels to be eligible for benefits. Among these are SSI, TANF, and SNAP (food stamps).
Economic Stability
a situation in which there is economic growth, rising national income, high employment, and steadiness in the general level of prices
a decline in the economy that occurs as investment sags, production falls off, and unemployment increases
Through the 1950s, most regulatory programs enacted by the national government fell into the category of_______ regulation
passes a continuing resolution
When Congress does not complete its appropriations process by the end of the fiscal year, it usually
Reserve Requirement
The portion of a banks deposits that the bank must retain as backing for its loans is known as the
Means Tested programs
Income security programs intended to assist persons whose income falls below a designated level are called
the subprime mortgage crisis
much of the current economic downturn is attributable to
Public Policy
intentional course of action or inaction followed by government in dealing with some problem or matter of concern
Theories of Public Policy
Elite, Bureaucratic, Interest, Plurists
Elite Theory
power to make policy, unequal distribution of power is normal and inevitable
Bureaucratic Theory
dictates all institutions (government/non-governmental) have fallen under bureaucracy and carries out procedures, dominate, take power from officials
Interest Group Theory
control government process, so many points in government that this group can step into any one of them
Plurists Theory
too many political resources scattered so widely no group can monopoly one policy
Policy Making Process
Problem Recognition, Agenda Setting, Policy Formulation, Policy Adoption, Budgeting, Policy Implementation, Policy Evaluation
Problem Recognition
identification of an issue that disturbs the people and leads them to call for governmental intervention, criteria is circumstances that can be addressed by government action (ex: hurricane katrina FEMA)
Agenda Setting
government recognition that a problem is worthy of consideration for governmental intervention; constant process of forming the list of issues to be addressed
set of issues to be discussed or given attention
systemic agenda
discussion agenda; all subjects viewed as requiring public attention and as involving matters within the legitimate jurisdiction of governments
governmental/institutional agenda
problems to which public officials feel obliged to devote active and serious attention
Policy Formulation
identification of alternative approaches to addressing the problems placed on the agenda; crafting of proposed courses of action to resolve public problems
different forms of formulation
Routine, Analogous, Creative
Routine Formulation
altering existing policy proposal or creating new proposals within an issue the government has preciously addressed
Analogous Formulation
new problems by drawing on experience with similar problems in the past or other jurisdictions
Creative Formulation
attempts to develop new or unprecedented proposals that represent a departure from existing practices and that will better resolve a problem
Policy Adoption
the formal selection of public policies through legislative, executive, judicial, and bureaucratic means; approval of a policy proposal by the people with requisite authority, such as cheif executive
this process allows president and the congress an opportunity to review policies/programs, monitor administration, value and effectiveness, exercise influence on conduct
Policy Implementation
process of carrying out public process; techniques are authoritative, incentive, capacity, hortatory
actions must be restrained to prevent things from being unsafe, unfair, evil or immoral (ex: safety regulations, radio restrictions)
encourage people to act in their own best interests by offering payoffs or bonuses (ex: tax deductions, higher taxes)
provide information, education, training, resources, or job training to help people participate in society
encourage people to use better instincts (ex: Dont Mess with Texas campaign to stop littering)
Policy Evaluation
determine whether a course of action is achieving its intended goals
federal program established during the LBJ administration that provides medical care to elderly social security recipients over the age of 65
a government program that subsidizes medical care for the poor (between national and state government)
John Dewey
an influential education reform advocate of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He advocated active and experiential learning
Education in the early days
was seen as a good way of instilling the moral values of the community in future generations by focusing on character traits and basic skills such as reading, writing, and arithmetic
Ben Franklins view of Education
legitimizing democratic institutions in the minds of young people and of establishing social and political order in the United States
Northwest Ordinance
set aside land for public schools to be established in 1787
National Defense Education Act of 1957
emphasized math and science in schools and then building weapon systems for scientists and engineers
Brown v. Board of Education
ruled segregation in schools were unconstitutional
Department of Education
established in 1979 under president Jimmy Carters term was built to monitor schools, establish curriculum and set up programs
Title IX
of the Educational Amendments of 1972 expanded educational and athletic opportunities for women
No Child Left Behind Act
education reform passed in 2002 that employs high standards and measurable goals as a method of improving american education
Charter Schools
are semi-public institutions that are run by universities, non-profits, or corporations. Although some may take private donations to help increase the quality of education
1970 First Earth Day
when millions of citizens took part in marches and rallies demanding greater government action to protect the environment
Clean Air Act of 1970
established national primary and secondary standards for air quality in the United States. A revised version was passed in 1990
President Ronald Reagan
did not continue the efforts to maintain clean air and water and actually took away government control of environmentalists issues
Global Warming
increase in global temperatures due to carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels such as coal and oil
Public Policy
The intentional course of action followed by government in dealing with problems or matters of concern is called
For the Poor
Medicaid was designed to provide health care
Northwest Ordinance
The earliest example of national government involvement in education policy is the
generally absent
The federal governments resonse to global warming has been
Are affected by life expectancy
Health Care Costs
What are the three levels of federal courts
Federal District Courts, Federal Circuit Courts of Appeals, Supreme Court
When does the Supreme Court have original jurisdiction
cases dealing with disputes between states and involving foreign ministers
How do federal judges attain office
appointed by president
How long is a federal judge's term
Who must approve presidential appointments
Senate Judiciary Committee
The belief of judicial activists
judges should be constitutional interpreters, Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect current conditions and values.
The belief called judicial restraint
never overturning acts of legislature, Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect what the framers intended and what its words literally say.
What is a writ of certiorari
legal document used to request lower court transcripts of a case
What did Marbury v. Madison establish
judicial review
What is judicial review
right to judge constitutionality of laws
Which article of the Constitution describes the Judicial Branch
What is criminal law
regulates the conduct of individuals, defines crime, and provides punishment for criminal acts
What is civil law
deals with disputes that do not involve criminal penalties
What is public law
deals with the actions of public agencies or officials and the powers of government
What does stare decisis mean
"let the decision stand", a previous decision by a court applies as a precedent until that decision is overturned
What is the writ of habeas corpus
court order that the individual in custody be brought into court and shown the cause for detention
What is due process of law
right of every citizen against arbitrary action by national or state government
What is the supremacy clause
laws passed by the national government and all treaties are the supreme law of the land
What does amicus curiae mean
"friend of the court", individuals or groups who are not parties to the lawsuit but present additional briefs