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Chap 14: Explorers
Terms in this set (17)
the science or practice of drawing maps
The Columbian exchange
The exchanging of plants and animals from one country to another through trading.
Toscanelli's grid map
Created by Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli. He created a chart based on the assessment of the circumference of the earth using the value of a degree at the Equator as equal to 75 miles.
This tool was invented in China in the 3rd century. It was brought over to Europe in the 12th century. This tool shows the direction of the magnetic north which helped the explorers during this time period navigate what direction they should take during their voyages.
This tool is used to for navigation by using the positions of the stars and sun to calculate the direction.
He personally financed many voyages with his money from a noble crusading order.
Bartholomeu Diaz (1450-1500)
Sailed around the Cape of Good Hope.
Vasco De Gama (1460-1524)
Reaches India by rounding Cape of Good Hope.
Nunez de Balboa
Became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean from the new world. He landed on the isthmus of Panama and traveling west.
His crew is the first to circumnavigate the globe in 1519. He did not live to complete the voyage because he was killed in the Philippines.
Which European countries led the way in maritime exploration, and what were their motives?
Spain- Wealth and to spread Christianity.
Portugal- Searching for a route to asia by sailing south around Africa.
England- Colonize land to expand the British empire. Spread Protestantism.
France- Spread Christianity, Wealth, National Glory.
Dutch- Northwest Passage, building a settlement, Fur trade.
Settled in modern day, Guatemala. Had many achievements in math, science, agriculture, hieroglyph writing. Created the 365 day calendar. The building in many of these big cities were very grand. By 900 AD, they abandoned the cities and know one knows were they actually have gone to. By the time the Spanish invaders came in, most of the Mayans have lived in Agricultural villages.
Settled in central Mexico in the capital city of Tenochtitlan. They developed an intricate social, political, and religious commercial organization that brought many near by city- states under their rule. However, Hernan Cortes and his crew of Spaniards invaded them and eventually took control of the entire empire. What led to the demise of the Aztecs would be the superior technology that the Spaniards possessed such as guns, warships, etc and also disease which was also brought over by the Spaniards.
Settled in near the Andes Mountains from modern day Chile up to Colombia. Had a massive kingdom and also a super strong military led by the emperor. This group of people devised their own road system and had a centralized religion and language. The demise of the Incas would be the disease that was brought over by the Spanish which decimated a lot of the Inca people.
What roles did mathematics and technology play in the growth of exploration? Give examples.
The role of Math and technology played a big role in the growth of exploration because many of the tools that were invented gave explorers the tools they need in order for them to navigate the world. Creations such as the compass and astrolabe are just a few of the examples that helped explorers navigate the world. Cartography was very impacting during this time period because it allowed maps to be created in order to see what layout of the world looks like. Unknown lands would now have coordinates to help explorers know were they are and know the distance they have to travel in order for them to get to their destination.
In what ways did the discovery of the Americas affect Europe?
Countries such as Spain, France, and England were able to spread their religion. Trading of plants and animals allowed the economy to benefit many of the European countries that settled in the Americas which is seen with the Columbian Exchange. European rivalries between countries became prominent. Most importantly, it proved that there is more of the world that needed to be discovered.
used to tell the distance traveled north or south from the port of departure.
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