Chapter 5 (Environmental Geology)

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Catastrophe
An event or situation causing sufficient damage to people, property, or society in general from which recovery and/or rehabilitation is long and involved; natural processes most likely to produce a catastrophe include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, tsunamis, volcanoes, and large fires.
Disaster Preparedness
With respect to natural hazards, refers to the actions of individuals, families, cities, states, or entire nations taken before a hazardous event to plan for that event and to minimize losses.
Forecast
With respect to natural hazards, refers to an announcement that states that a particular event such as a flood is likely to occur at a particular time, often with some probability as to how likely the event is.
Land Use Planning
One of the most environmentally sound adjustments to hazards. People can avoid building on floodplains, in areas where there are active landslides, or in places where coastal erosion is likely to occur.
Magnitude-Frequency Concept
There is generally an inverse relationship between the magnitude of an event and its frequency. (example: the larger the flood, the less frequently it happens)
Natural Disaster
One or more of the following criteria are met:

a) 10 or more people are killed
b) 100 or more people are affected
c) a declaration of emergency is issued
d) a request is made for international assistance
Precursor Events
With respect to natural hazards, refers to physical, chemical, or biological events that occur before an event such as a flood, earthquake, or volcanic eruption.
Prediction
A statement that an event with specified magnitude, such as a tsunami or flood, will happen during a particular time interval. Contrast with forecast, which provides a percent chance of something happening.
Risk
From an environmental viewpoint, risk may be considered as the product of the probability of an event times the consequences.
Warning
With respect to natural hazards, the announcement of a possible disaster such as a large earthquake or flood that could occur in the near future.
How does a catastrophe differ from a disaster?
Damages from a catastrophe are of a magnitude that requires a long recovery period.
Why is land-use planning typically more effective than artificial control of natural hazards?
Most hazardous natural processes are not amenable to artificial control.
Why might global warming increase the magnitude and/or frequency of weather-related hazards?
Warmer ocean waters will channel more energy into the atmosphere. Many hazardous natural events are controlled in part by the amount of water in the system.
Why does population increase affect the number of catastrophic events?
Greater numbers of people occupy marginal lands in the path of hazardous processes.
Surface waves are produced by...
P and S waves reaching the surface.
To what does the concept of acceptable risk refer?
The risk that society or individuals are willing to endure.
Which is the correct series indicating what hazards, on average, has caused the most deaths per year in the United States (most to least)?
Tornado and Windstorm, Lightning, Flood, Hurricane
It was the failing of two levees against which body of water that caused much of the flooding of New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina?
Lake Pontchartrain
What was not a factor in the flooding of New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina?
Regional subsidence was slower than was appreciated.
Based on your knowledge of the magnitude-frequency concept, which would you expect to do the most work altering the landscape in a given area?

a) Large hurricanes
b) Tornadoes
c) Light spring rains
d) Moderate floods of an area river
d) Moderate floods of an area river
In what way was the 1845 mudflow on Nevado del Ruiz responsible for the huge amount of lives lost in the same area in 1985?
Rich soils deposited by the original mudflow resulted in an agricultural center being developed, drawing a large number of people to inhabit the area.
What event with a low catastrophe potential kills a large number of people each year?
Lightning
All of the following hazards are linked to hurricanes, EXCEPT...

a) landslides.
b) lightning.
c) coastal erosion.
d) earthquakes.
e) flooding.
d) earthquakes.
What regions of the world are at risk for volcanic eruptions?

a) Italy
b) Mexico
c) Alaska
d) Japan
e) Pacific Northwest's Cascade Range
f) All of the above
f) All of the above
After an earthquake in Japan, scientists in Hawaii might have reason to forecast...
a tsunami.
Which of the following is an example of how human activities are likely to increase the impact of natural disasters?

a) Removal of coastal wetlands and conversion of land to urban areas reduces natural protection from storm waves.

b) Deforestation and conversion of land to agriculture yield more frequent flooding events.

c) Developing an agricultural center on the fertile flank of an active volcano places a greater number of people at risk.

d) All of the above are correct.
d) All of the above are correct.
In general, the frequency of an event is _______ its magnitude.
inversely proportional to
What percentage of New Orleans flooded after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina and the failure of levees?
Approximately 80 percent
Which of the following is true of natural hazards?

a) They could be prevented if we used proper engineering methods.

b) They rarely cause great financial losses.

c) They are natural processes that become hazards when people live or work in areas where they occur.

d) All of the above are correct.
c) They are natural processes that become hazards when people live or work in areas where they occur.
A catastrophe is...
an event in which damages are such that recovery and/or rehabilitation is a long, involved process.
Which of the following is an example of a linkage between hazardous events?

a) A drought occurring in an area that is often prone to flooding

b) An earthquake causing a landslide along a coastal area

c) A tornado touching down in an area that has already suffered from extensive erosion

d) Massive rainstorms putting out a wildfire

e) All of the above
b) An earthquake causing a landslide along a coastal area
All of the following are precursor events that may help predict a landslide, earthquake, or volcano, EXCEPT...

a) anomalous uplift.
b) flooding.
c) foreshocks.
d) bulging or swelling of the ground surface.
e) creep of the ground surface.
b) flooding.
Acceptable risk is the risk we are willing to endure in a given situation. Most of us agree that the acceptable risk of driving in a car is _______ whereas the acceptable risk from a nuclear power plant is _______.
high, low
Which of the following is a direct effect of a disaster?

a) People killed or injured
b) Taxes levied to finance recovery
c) Emotional distress
d) Donation of money or goods
e) All of the above
a) People killed or injured
All of the following responses to a hazard would be considered anticipatory, EXCEPT...

a) evacuation.
b) disaster preparedness.
c) insurance.
d) search and rescue.
e) land-use planning.
d) search and rescue.
How might climate change affect natural hazards?

a) Global warming will likely increase the frequency and severity of hazardous weather.

b) Global warming will increase the incidence of precipitation in certain regions and thus subsequent flooding.

c) Rising sea level due to climate change will lead to an increase in coastal erosion.

d) Global warming will increase the occurrence of droughts in certain regions, and deserts are likely to expand.

e) All of the above are correct.
e) All of the above are correct.
Why does population growth result in more death and damage from natural hazards?

a) Population increase puts more people at risk from a natural event.

b) Population increase forces more people to settle in hazardous areas.

c) Both of the above statements are true.
c) Both of the above statements are true.
An example of sound land-use planning would be...
preserving a floodplain as a greenbelt.
All of the following are types of artificial control used to control natural hazards, EXCEPT...

a) prohibiting construction on a floodplain.

b) construction of a retaining wall.

c) construction of artificial levees.

d) construction of a dam along a river.

e) channelization of a river.

f) a seawall constructed along the coast.
a) prohibiting construction on a floodplain.
Which of the following hazards has a high catastrophe potential?

a) Expansive soils
b) Frost and freezing weather
c) Volcanic eruption
d) Lightning
e) Coastal erosion
c) Volcanic eruption
What aspect of the November 13, 1985, volcanic eruption of Nevado del Ruiz was mostly responsible for the large death toll?
Mudflow
What were the two main lessons learned forth 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia?
...
Differentiate between a catastrophe and a disaster.
...
What is the main conclusion of the magnitude-frequency concept?
...
What is the role of history in understanding natural hazards?
...
List some potential linkages between hazardous events.
...
What are some disaster prediction methods?
...
What is the difference between a forecast and a prediction?
...
Why do you think there are sometimes strained relationships between the media and scientists?
...
How may the risk of a particular event be defined?
...
What is the difference between a reactive response and an anticipatory response?
...
What are some of the common adjustments that limit or reduce the effects of natural hazards?
...
What is the role of global climate in the occurrence of natural hazardous events?
...
How does human population increase result in disasters becoming catastrophes?
...