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Terms in this set (65)
According to Piaget, this occurs when a child incorporates new knowledge into existing knowledge
According to Piaget, this occurs when a child adjusts to the new knowledge
A 2 yr old sees a man who is bald on top of his head and has long frizzy hair on the sides and yells "clown, clown". Using existing schema to deal with a new object or situation is:
The boy adjusted his understanding of what a clown is. This is:
According to Piaget, a concept or structure that exists in a persons mind to arrange and interpret information is called:
___________ are building blocks
According to Vygotsky, what is the technique called that means changing the level of support?
What does Piaget talk about being the motivation for change/development?
What is Vygotsky's term for the range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone, but can be learned with guidance?
Zone of Proximal Development
According to Vygotsky, what is the zone of proximal development?
Range of tasks too difficult for children to master alone, but which can be learned with assistance.
What best describes Vygotsky's limits?
lower limit is the level of skill reached by the child working independently.
Upper limit is the level of additional responsibility the child can accept with the assistance of an able instructor.
What is cognitive development?
the process in which each of us becomes an intelligent person.
What does the term plasticity refer to?
the brains ability to change
Piaget's four stages of cognitive development
Stage 1 - The Sensory Motor Stage (birth - 2)
Stage 2 - The Preoperational Stage (2-7)
Stage 3 - The Concrete Operational Stage (7-11)
Stage 4 - The Formal Operational Stage (11-15)
Emphasized how early development occurs through parental instruction and interaction with the social environment.
What does Piaget think about private speech?
Thinks private speech is is egocentric and immature
What does Vygotsky think about private speech?
Thinks it is an important tool of though during the early childhood years.
What are building blocks of knowledge?
What is a relatively permanent influence on behavior, knowledge, and thinking skills
The view that behavior should be explained by observable experiences
The view that emphasizes how behavior, environment, and person
Social Cognitive Approach
the view that focuses on how children process information through attention, memory, thinking, and other cognitive processes
Information Processing Approach
This view emphasizes the child's cognitive construction of knowledge and understanding
The view that focuses on collaboration with others to produce knowledge and understanding
Everything that we do, both verbal and non verbal, that can be directly seen or heard.
The thoughts, feelings and motives that each of us experience but cannot be observed by others.
A form of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response.
A form of learning in which consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability that the behavior will occur
Pavlov's dogs experiments were experiments having to do with
A stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning is known as _______?
A reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning is known as _______?
An initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned response is known as _________?
A response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus is _____?
The bell prior to conditioning
During conditioning, the ________ is repeatedly paired with the ________
Neutral Stimulus, Unconditioned stimulus
The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response is known as?
Reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction is known as?
In his experiment with Little Albert and a white rat, what did Watson do?
Paired the rat with a loud scary noise
Giving the same response to similar stimuli
Operant conditioning is at the heart of whose view?
Operant conditioning focuses on?
Reinforcement ______ a response, making it _______ likely to occur
Punishment ______ a response, making it ________ likely to occur
Who is on of the main architects of social cognitive theory?
Summarize the main conclusions of Bandura's Bobo doll study
When adults model aggressive behavior, children are likely to learn that behavior through observation.
Learning that involves acquiring skills, strategies, and beliefs by observing others.
What is the point of Bandura's theory?
Social and cognitive factors matter too
What's another word for cognition/cognition's?
Information processing theory
Input ---> sensory store memory ---> working memory ---> long term memory
______ memory serves like a filter, with memory only lasting for about a second/a super short period of time.
Sensory store Memory
Process by which info gets stored in memory
The focusing of mental resources
Characteristics of experts
Notice features, have a great deal of content knowledge, can retrieve important knowlegde
It stores only a small amount of information sensed
Why is attention so important
It moves information from sensory register into short term memory
The mental "workbench"
A child who draws very well, plays music by ear is said to have:
preferring to study in a well lit room
Howard Gardner's definition of intelligence
Intelligence is the ability to create a valuable product or offer
Result of aptitude (skills born with) plus experience
Personal beliefs and standards expressed in the topics
Global vs. logical thinkers
global thinkers focus on big picture, logical thinkers are more rational
You give more importance to gut feelings
define learning style
a combination of personal qualities, preferences, and attributes
What are sensory preferences
The ways you like to acquire information. Visual, auditory, tactile
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