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Pasotral people on the global stage


A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.


A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these 'barbarians,' as they called them, and dispersed them in 1st Century. (168)


a member of the Turkish-speaking ethnic group in Turkey, or, formerly, in the Ottoman Empire


a Nilotic language


under his leadership (210 174 BCE), Modun has effected Xiongu empire a revolution in nomadic life. Fragmented and egalitarian societies were now transformed into a far more centeralized and hierarchical political system in which power was concentrated in divinely sanctioned rulers.

Genghis Khan

Mongolian Emperor whose empire stretched from the Black Sea to the Pacific Ocean (1162-1227)

The Mongol world era


Yuan dynasty China

1279-1368, -Dynasty of China.
-Established by Kublai Khan in 1271, lasted until 1368.
-The dynasty was significantly imperialistic, had a bureaucratic government, and utilized the philosophy of the Mandate of Heaven. Many important developments in the artistic aspect of society occurred in China under their rule.

Khubilai Khan

Last of the Mongol Great Khans (r. 1260-1294) and founder of the Yuan Empire. (p. 351)


Khubilai's brother who conquered the Abbasid dynasty and established the Ilkhanate of Persia. Captured the Abbasid capital of Baghdad after besieging it in 1258. Attempted to capture Syria but was expelled by Egyptian Muslims, who stopped Muslim expansion to the southwest

Kipchak Khanate

Name given to Russia by the Mongols after they conquered it and incorporated it into the Mongol Empire in the mid-thirteenth century; known to Russians as the "Khanate ofthe Golden Horde." (KIP-chak KAHN-ate)

Black Death

the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe, An outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons. (p. 397)

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