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Terms in this set (39)
The ____ ____ ___ consists of motor neurons that innervate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands.
autonomic nervous system
The two arms of the ANS are called ____ ______, they counterbalance each other to keep the body running smoothly.
Served by both divisions buy they cause opposite effects.
The ANS efferent pathway uses a ____-neuron chain in order to reach its effectors.
The ______ _______ _______ uses a two-neuron chain in order to reach its effectors.
ANS efferent pathway
Neurotransmitters effects may be either stimulatory or inhabitory in ANS? T or F
the _______ division of the ANS is the "resting and digesting" system
what division is the ANS is resting and digesting system
During this division gastrointestinal activity is high, pupils are constricted, blood pressure is low, heart rate is low, and respiratory rate is low.
the ______ division of the ANS is the "fight or flight" system
during this division the lung bronchioles dilate to take in more oxygen, liver releases more glucose for increased energy needs, and blood is shunted to the skeletal muscles and heart for activity.
the thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord provides fibers for the ______ division
the brain and sacral region of the spinal cord, or craniosacral areas, privides fibers for the _______ division.
In the parasympathetic division, the _______________ axons extend from the CNS all the way to the structures they innervate.
The axons synapse with postganglionic neurons located in terminal ganglia that lie very close to or within the target organs.
very short ______ axons issue from the terminal ganglia and synapse with effector cells in their immediate area.
Preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division pass through the ____ rami communicates and enter sympathetic trunk ganglia
preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic divison pass through the white rami communicantes and enter they ____ ____ ____.
sympathetic trunk ganglia
When synapases are made in the sympathetic trunk ganglia, the postganglionic axons enter the spinal nerve by way of communicating branches called the ____ rami communicantes.
some preganglionic fibers fomr the sympathetic divion pass directly to the adrenal medulla without synapsing. Upon stimulation, the adrenal medulla secretes _____ and _____ into the blood.
viscereal reflexes differ from somatic reflexes in that it contains ____ neurons in the motor efferent pathway.
viscereral reflexes contain two neurons, what are those neurons?
preganglionic and postganglionic neuron
visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as _______ pain fibers, contributing to the phenomenon of referred pain.
some painfl stimuli arising in the viscera are percieved as _____ in origin.
heart pain may be referred to _____ pain
cholinergic fibers release the neurotransmitter __________.
_______ is released by most ympathetic postganglionic axons with the exception of ACh secretion at sweat glands and some blood vessels.
this is released by all ANS preganglionic axons and all parasympathetic postganglionic axons.
what are the two types of cholinergic receptors?
nicotinic and muscarinic
_____ receptors are always stimulatory and are found on motor end plates of skeletal muscles, all postganglionic neurons, and adrenel medulla.
______ receptors are found on all effector cells stimulated by postganglionic cholinergic fibers, essentially all parasympathetic target organs and some sweat glands.
what are the tyo types of adrenergic receptors?
over the counter drugs for colds, allergies and nasal congestion stimulate_____ adrenergic receptors.
sympatholytics such as _____ ____ are used to treat hypertension, which is high blood pressure
b2 recepters binders
most visceral organs have innervations from both ANS divisions. some exceptions are blood vessels, and sweat glands which are entirely innervated by ______ division.
________ ______ keeps blood vessels in continual state of partial constriction
_______division effects are short lived and highley localized
______ division normally dominated the heart, smooth muscles of digestion and urinary tract organs.
the _________ is the main integrative center of the ANS activity.
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