something that nature provides and people have learned how to use
soils that remains frozen during the whole year (except for a thin top layer that melts for a short time in summer). These soils are located in cold latitudes near the north and south poles.
areas inside a country that govern themselves (e.g.,areas in which most people belong to only one ethnic group).
a group of people who have common ancestors, speak the same language,and have the similar cultual ideas such as religion
a railroad that runs mainly east-west across thousands of miles in Russia from Moscow to the Pacific coast
latitude of about 66 degrees
someone who does not live in the same place all the time but instead moves (e.g., people who move herds of animals to places that have plants that the animals can eat)
the effect of land size on temperature range(e.g., places that are near the middle of a large land mass tend to have hotter summers and colder winters than places that are close to an ocean)
resources that are not used at present but are available to be used in the future (e.g., keeping money in the bank for emergencies)
process in which people remove a resource from the earth (e.g., digging ores out of the ground or pumping oil out of rock layers
a large area of the oldest rocks that forms the original center of a continent (also called a "shield"); usually a mix of extremely hard rocks
an area of young (recently formed) mountains that have many earthquakes and active volcanoes
areas that are near or around ancient cratons and young cordilleras. They consist mainly of rocks that were formed when material eroded from high cordilleras or highlands of cratons.
rock that formed after hot lava cooled and became solid; extremely hard rocks often found in ancient cratons orshields
large areas of rock layers that were formed after tiny pieces of rock were carried downhill by rivers into lower places (e.g., into ancient oceans). Over long periods of time, the layers of tiny pieces became solid rock round in "platforms".
materials (e.g., coal, oil) that began as plants very long ago and that people mine out of the earth and eventually burn to produce energy (e.g., using petroleum to drive cars, using coal to produce electricity)
(hydraulic fracturing) is a way to get oil out of a rock called shale (e.g., when miners force special liquids into the shale to push oil out of it)
the process of adding water to fields to help plants to grow (e.g., keeping crops from drying out during times when it does not rain)
a place (e.g., on a high area, on a river that breaks through mountains, on a narrow waterway between two pieces of land) that is important to defend or important to attack.
a region in Southwest Asia where the earliest farming began because there was a combination of soft soils, useful wild plants, and enough water (through precipitation or irrigation)
a liquid form of fossil fuel that people mine (remove fro rock layers) and refine to make gasoline or diesel oil; it is mined from sedimentary rocks in "platform" area.
precious type of rock that is mined mainly from ancient "craton" areas
gold and silver
precious metals that people mine out of the ground and use to make coins, jewelry, or other expensive objects; found mainly in cordilleras
rocks that people mine (dig out of the ground) because they want to break out the metals or minerals that they can use to make useful products.