50 terms

Unit 3: Political Beliefs and Behaviors

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Conservative
A person whose pol. views favor more local, limited govt, less govt regulations, conformity to social norms &values; rough on criminals
Elite
The choice members or best of a group
Exit Polls
Polls conducted as voters leave selected polling places on Election Day.
Gender Gap
A term that refers to the regular pattern by which women are more likely to support Democratic candidates. Women tend to be significantly less conservative than men and are more likely to support spending on social services and to oppose higher levels of military spending.
Liberal
A person whose views favor more govt involvemnt in business, social welfare, minority rights, &increased govt spending
Libertarian
One who favors a free market economy and no governmental interference in personal liberties, strong support for civil and political liberties but reject government regulation of the economy.
Middle America
Term sometimes used to describe mainstream Americans
Norm
Principles of right action, binding upon the members of a group and serving to guide, control, or regulate proper and acceptable behavior.
Partisanship
Government action based on firm allegiance to a political party
Political Elites
persons with a disproportionate share of political power
Political Ideology
A cohesive set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and the role of government.
Political Socialization
The process by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.
Poll
a survey in which individuals are asked to answer questions about a particular issue or person
Public Opinion
the distribution of the population's beliefs about politics and policy issues
Pure Conservative
Conservative on both economic and personal conduct issues
Pure Liberalism
A political ideology that is liberal on both economic and personal conduct.
Random Sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Religious Tradition
The moral teachings of religious institutions on religious, social, and economic issues.
Sampling Error
The level of confidence in the findings of a public opinion poll. The more people interviewed, the more confident one can be of the results.
Silent Majority
A phrase used to describe people, whatever their economic status, who uphold traditional values, especially against the counterculture of the 1960s
Activist
someone who takes direct action to achieve a political goal
Australian Ballot
A government printed ballot of uniform size and shape to be cast in secret that was adopted by many states around 1890 in order to reduce the voting fraud associated with party printed ballots cast in public.
Campaigners
Those who both vote in elections and get involved in campaigns
Communalists
Vote, plus get involved in nonpartisan community activities with a local focus
Complete Activists
Participate in all forms of politics; highly educated, high income, middle age.
15th Amendment
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Grandfather Clause
Jim Crow era state laws that discouraged African Americans from voting by saying that if your grandpa couldn't vote, then neither can you. The newly-freed slaves grandpas couldn't vote, so neither could they. Declared unconstitutional in 1915.
Inactives
people who do not vote; unplugged politically; younger, less educated lower income, 20% of population
Literacy Test
A test given to persons to prove they can read and write before being allowed to register to vote
Motor-voter Bill
Allowed Americans to register to vote when signing up for a drivers license
19th Amendment
Gave women the right to vote
Parochial Participants
Those who avoid elections and civic organizations but will contact officials regarding specific problems.
Poll Tax
A requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote
Registered Voters
people who are registered to vote
26th Amendment
Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Voting Specialists
Vote but do little else; not much education or income, older
White Primary
the practice of keeping blacks from voting in the southern states' primaries through arbitrary use of registration requirements and intimidation
Americanism
A belief that Americans consider themselves bound by common values and common hopes
Civic Competence
A belief that one can affect government policies
Civic Duty
the idea that citizens have a responsibility to help their country
Class Consciousness
a belief that you are a member of an economic group whose interests are opposed to people in other such groups
Culture War
A split in the United States reflecting differences in people's beliefs about private and public morality, and regarding what standards ought to govern individual behavior and social arrangements.
Internal Efficacy
The belief that one can understand politics and therefore participate in politics
External Efficacy
The belief that one is effective when participating in politics, for example that the government will respond to one's demands
Orthodox
Adhering to the traditional and established, especially in religion
Political Culture
A set of basic values and beliefs about one's country or government that is shared by most citizens and that influences political opinions and behaviors
Political Ideology
A cohesive set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and the role of government.
Progressive
moving forward; a person who favors a political philosophy of progress and reform and the protection of civil liberties
Rights
Powers or privileges granted to people either by an agreement among themselves or by law