psych final


Terms in this set (...)

Fritz Klein argued that sexual orientation
ranged from unisexual to bisexual
Research has found that
parts of the hypothalamus are different sizes depending on sexuality
By 6 months, infants
know impenetrability of matter and centers of gravity
The idea of spreading activation is used to explain
how one concept can prime another
In the prisoners dilemma, panic behavior would be minimal if each individual
could trust the others calmly to take their turns
The final choice of a mate is made by
the female
Harlows experiment with infant monkeys showed
that the infants preferred snuggling over food
The time needed to make a decision about a rotated shape
is directly proportional to the shapes angle of rotation
Traits that increase a creature's fitness are defined as those which
lead to more variable offspring
Change blindness shows that we can
easily miss details when not explicit paying attention to them
Equity theories have the hardest time explaining
the "tough love" that parents may have drug abusing children
Moral reasoning at the highest level relies upon
personal moral principles
When taking the TAT the participants task is to
make up a story based on the pictures shown to them
Fixed action patterns are normally elicited
by releasing stimuli
Cognitive dissonance results from
perceived inconsistencies among ones own behavior, beliefs, and feelings
Results from the use of the implicit association test suggest
that people have prejudices that they are not aware of
When take the rorschach test the participant is asked to
look at the inkblot and say what it might be
The study for maze running rats showed that
even complex traits can be modified through only a few generations of breeding
Natural selection refers to the process by which
organisms with certain traits eventually outnumber the organisms without those traits
An applicant who isn't hired for a job but says he didn't want it anyway is exhibiting
reaction formation
Individuals who are born intersexual
have genitalia that do not look purely male or female
Most studies of criminal profiling suggest that it
produces very unimpressive results
Research on imprinting in humans indicates
that normal attachments can for at various points in infancy
The stoop task demonstrates that
sharpness of perception is important in how people associate what they view
The polygraph works by
assuming that most people are under increased stress when they are lying
Darwin's main evidence for evolution by natural selection came from
examples of useless structures in animals
Couples are more likely to have a successful marriage if they
had happily married parents
Studies of people who have become experts in their field show that
they achieved their expertise through years and years of practice
Research on the diffusion of responsibility suggests that
more bystanders can often mean less help in an emergency
Cattel and Eysenck
were both theorists who disagreed on the number of basic traits in a personality
Two babies born on the exact same day will begin
sitting before they develop walking
Gender identity is
our inner sense that we are male or female
Trait theories involve the idea that
there are basic underlying personality dispositions
Dishabituation studies suggest that
our sense organs begin to show accommodation only after several weeks of early experience
A human fixed action pattern is
Studies of adoptees fro orphanages show that these kids
have long lasting cognitive, emotional, and social adjustment problems
Individuals with type A behavior
run up escalators
Evidence against the James-Lange theory of emotion is provided by the fact that
people can feel one way and act another
Darwins belief that living things on earth were in perpetual struggle for resources came most directly from the
population theory but Thomas Malthus
The self-serving attributional bias refers to the observation that we tend to attribute our success
to the dispositional factors and our failures to the situation
Ones sexual orientation
lies on a scale from homosexual to heterosexual
Groups tend to be less in conflict
if they have a common goal
The claim that genetic factors contribute to personality is best supported by the fact that
identical twins are more alike on many personality measures
All republicans and democrats are alike
a, b, c
The fact that most people consider an apple to be more of a fruit than an olive illustrates
the representatie heuristic
Impossible figures may be confounding because
our visual systems try to resolve what we see into simple objects
A man is more likely to be gay if
he has several brothers
Current research suggests that schizophrenia is
a neurodevelopment disorder that may begin before birth
The main biological advantage of sexual reproduction is that
it allows some offspring to survive even when there are large changes in climate
Compared to people of western cultures, people in Korea, China, and Japan are more likely to
explain events according to the situation rather than to the personalities of people involved
To interpret MMPI, clinicians typically
make judgements about individuals based on subjective impressions and clinical expertise
The treatment of mania usually involves
medications that stabilize neurotransmitter release and may inhibit protein-kinase C
According to Erik Erikson
the lifespan poses a series of inevitable crises that must be confronted and resolved
When explaining the behaviors of others, people tend to
underestimate situation and overestimate dispositional factors
A man would most likely have problems related to the Oedipus complex if he
set out on his own to compete with the family business
Adults suffering from Stockholm syndrome most resemble
children who cling to physically abusive parents
Research suggests that people tend to pick as friends, others who
are much like themselves
One lesson from the Stanford prison experiment was that
the social roles we are asked to play can lead us to defy rules of normal conduct
Research suggests that by birth, infants
can identify faces and imitate facial expressions
According to Piaget, accommodation
takes place when current schemas are modified to deal with new objects or events
Milgrams obedience study demonstrated that most research participants would
give potentially lethal shocks to humans
Human neoteny has been used to explain
the fact that infants crawl before they walk
The hallmark of good personality development was
an interest in others welfare
The foot in the door technique of persuasion may work because
making a small commitment leads us to believe that a larger one is justified
A child who cuts his sandwich into four pieces rather than two so he has more to eat is exhibiting his lack of
conservation of quantity
The following are all members of the big 5 personality factors except
Believing that the most common last name in the world is smith illustrates the
availability heuristic
Groupthink is most likely to be found when groups
have strong, charismatic leaders
Genes for altruism may be spread because altruistic individuals
contribute to the survival of relatives with some of the same genes
A female is exercising cryptic mate choice when
her eggs reject some sperm but admit others
Projective personality tests rely on the assumption that
ambiguous stimuli are likely to elicit authentic responses
Research suggests that a strong predictor of happiness is
not having long term goals, but living instead in the "here-and now"
Waddingtons epigenetic landscape depicts that over the course of development
some traits are more easily changed than others
The result of the Schahter-Singer attribution of arousal experiment were used to suggest that
emotional experience is the cognitive interpretation of arousal
The Id, Ego, and Superego are best regarded as different
reaction patterns within each personality