Social Psych Exam 1
Terms in this set (50)
William is constantly searching for employment, but has yet to be hired. While William is outside in the unemployment line, a woman yells at him as she drives by, "Get a job, you lazy bum!" Her assumption about William is an example of the...
Fundamental Attribution Error
Why is it unwise to conclude that if two variables are correlated, one must have caused the other?
Some unmeasured third variable might make them appear related when in fact they are not.
Based on evidence presented by the authors of your text, the facial expression for disgust is adaptive because it...
Decreases the intensity of disgusting sensations.
What is the major advantage of processing information automatically?
We can use our cognitive resources for other, more important matters.
Lixue and Hayk are in an unhappy marriage. When Hayk brings home flowers, Lixue thinks "There must have been a sale at the grocery store" or "I suppose those are leftover from some party at work." Her attribution reflects the attribution of a __________ behavior to an ___________ cause.
In describing the intricacies of cross-cultural research, the authors of your text assert that it not as simple as translating one's materials into an appropriate language, traveling to another culture, and conducting the experiment there. Which of the following statements best captures the role of construals in making cross-cultural research very difficult to do?
The same experimental situation can have different meanings in different cultures.
Allison is a very sweet, intelligent, amicable person. However, Joe hears from her ex-boyfriend that she is hard to get along with and very snobby. According to research on the self-fulfilling prophecy, Joe acts in a(n)...
Unfriendly way toward Allison. This in turn causes Allison to act unfriendly toward Joe, and Joe to believe that her ex-boyfriend was right about her.
Remy has recently learned about Kelley's covariation model. He uses it when his sister does something that isn't typical for her so the consistency of that behavior is low. What kind of attribution does he make for her behavior?
Isaac is on an interview for a job for which he is well qualified. However, he is worried that some of the people may have negative schemas about his ethnicity and that they may shape his behavior on the interview with self-fulfilling prophecies. Of the people he meets with (listed below), who is the least likely to use self-fulfilling prophecies?
Tyler, who is paying close attention to Isaac, and wants to make an accurate judgment of him.
Lisa and Melissa were comparing grades on their chemistry exam. Lisa was disappointed when she first saw that she had received a grade of 76 percent, but when she saw that Melissa (the class valedictorian in high school) had earned a grade of 78 percent, she felt much better about her grade. What is most likely to be a reason that Lisa changed her perspective?
She had a different construal of her grade.
In the book and film Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory, greedy Augustus Gloop disappears into the river of chocolate, gum-addicted Violet Beauregard turns into a blueberry when she insists on testing blueberry-flavored gum that hasn't been perfected yet, selfish Verruca Salt tries to steal a golden egg and falls down a chute.....Only Charlie from the poor, but hardworking and loving family-makes it all the way to the tour's end....The events in the story illustrate the....
Belief in a just world
The social cognition approach is based on the notion that humans are often motivated to...
Be accurate in their perceptions and inferences
According to the authors of your text, when Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) conducted their study on the self-fulfilling prophecy in elementary school classrooms, the "bloomers" in the experiment were actually...
Chosen at random
One of the greatest advantages of surveys is that researchers...
Can examine variables that are difficult to observe directly
When we commit the fundamental attribution error, we ________ the power of ___________
Overestimate; Personal Influence
In a study described in the textbook, participants memorized either the word reckless or the word adventurous before reading an ambiguous passage about Donald in which he was described as engaging in a number of recreational activities (e.g., driving in a demolition derby, white-water rafting) in which he had risked injury and even death. This method was used to study the concept of...
The availability heuristic is based on the principle of using _________ as a cue to probability.
After the mass suicides related to the cults at Jonestown, people tended to blame the victims and accuse them of being psychologically unstable or deranged. Social psychologists are more likely to explain these mass suicides as being due to...
The Social Influence of Cult Leaders
According to recent research, why does culture influence our tendency to make internal versus external attributions?
Cultures vary in the extent to which interdependence and conformity are valued.
If you use the internet, you are probably familiar with emoticons: Facial expresses displayed using a combination of typographic figures, e.g., :-) for a smile. Asian countries have their own set of emoticons....there are different smiling facial figures for a man smiling (^_^) and a woman smiling (^.^), since in Japan, women are not supposed to exhibit a wide, uninhibited smile. This difference between the men's and women's emoticons in Japan is due to a(n)...
New professors often have to concentrate very hard to give a lecture, and monitor themselves carefully to make sure they're not talking too fast and that they are using appropriate and clear examples. More seasoned professors do not have to concentrate as much, and can talk clearly and engagingly, and keep an eye on students all at the same time. This example represents the transition from __________ thinking to __________ thinking as professors gain experience.
In talking to an acquaintance of yours, you note that she never looks you directly in the eye. To figure out whether this is because she is shy, because she dislikes you, or because she comes from a culture that discourages direct eye contact, you would probably...
Make an attribution
Complete the following analogy, based on information from your text: Behaviorism:_________:: Gestalt psychology: __________
In the outside article that you read for class, Correll and colleagues (2002) examined the association between bias in responding to the shooter task and individual differences related to prejudice toward African Americans. Which of the following was correlated with bias in reaction times based on target ethnicity?
Knowledge of cultural stereotypes.
"Computer nerds" are widely held to be socially awkward, introverted, unpopular, and obsessed with anything related to technology. This description represents a(n)...
Implicit Personality Theory
Considering the results of the study by Shariff and Norenzayan (2007) presented in your text, why is it that when people were primed with words related to God or fairness to others, they left more money for the next person?
Goals of altruism were activated without the participants' awareness.
What do the fundamental attribution error and the self-fulfilling prophecy have in common?
We believe something about another person that may not be true.
Consider the following research question: "How has new computer technology changed the U.S. educational system?" This question is most likely to be asked by a(n)...
In the outside article that you read for class, Correll and colleagues (2002) created an index to capture participants' reaction times to shoot armed African American targets relative to armed white targets, and to not shoot unarmed white targets relative to unarmed African America targets. This index was labeled...
Complete the following analogy: Independent variable is to _________ as dependent variable is to _________.
Ross and colleagues (2002) randomly assigned participants previously identified as either competitive or cooperative to one of the two games: the "Wall Street Game" or the "Community Game." They found that two-thirds of the players i the "Wall Street Game" behaved competitively compared to one-third of people who played the "Community Game" who behaved competitively. What do these findings suggest?
Seemingly minor aspects of a social situation can override personality differences.
Suppose a researcher wants to know whether frustration really does cause aggression. She collects a large number of experimental studies that involve both children and adults, and that are conducted both in the laboratory and in the "real world" in both the United States and other cultures. She then conducts a(n) ___________ to determine whether there is enough consistency in findings across studies to determine generalizability of the relationship between frustration and aggression.
Professor Takahami is a personality psychologist interested in divorce. Which question is she most likely to investigate?
Are some types of people more likely to divorce than others?
You are taking a university course with combined graduate and undergraduate enrollment. You know that there are many more undergraduate than graduate students enrolled in this course. There is a woman who looks to be about thirty sitting next to you. If you use only the base rate to guess her student status, you would guess that she is a(n) _________ student because ____________
Undergraduate; There are more of them enrolled in the class
If height and weight have a positive correlation, what does this tell you about the relationship between these variables?
Taller people are usually heavier, but there are exceptions to the rule.
Why is random assignment important in an experiment?
It allows researchers to rule out individual differences as an alternative explanation.
How are self-fulfilling prophecies and schemas related?
Self-fulfilling prophecies are inadvertent and unconscious influences on behavior by an individual's schemas.
Recall that Latané and Darley (1968) studied bystander intervention by having participants overhear a seizure while they were speaking on headphones with another discussant. Assuming that participants believed that the seizure was real and felt anxious and confused about whether and how to help when they heard the seizure, Latané and Darley's (1968) experiment was...
High in psychological realism.
One problem with informed consent is that...
Full knowledge of the experiment's purpose can alter participants' behavior.
Internal Validity is to __________ as external validity is to ___________.
We make self-serving attributions for all of the following reasons except that we...
Are concerned with obtaining accurate feedback about ourselves to use in making future decisions.
The authors of your text report that a college professor asked students to list either two or ten ways to improve the course. Because students used the availability heuristic, which group of students gave the professor the highest course ratings overall?
The students who were asked to list ten improvements.
When most Americans walk into a fast food restaurant chain, they know they should walk up to the counter to order, pay, and pick up their food, rather than sit and wait to be served. This knowledge of how to act in such a situation is called a...
When people are distracted, they are more likely to fall prey to the fundamental attribution error. This occurs because internal attributions arise from __________, whereas external attribution arise from __________.
Automatic processes; Controlled processes
Before the 2008 election, Zoe was not sure who the winner would be. But after President Barack Obama won, Zoe exclaimed, "Of course he won, he had the popular in many states, and many Americans are inspired by him." Here, Zoe is exhibiting.....
The Hindsight Bias
It is ____________ to miss a bus by five minutes than to miss it by an hour because ___________.
More distressing; It's easier to imagine what you could have done to catch the bus
An experimenter conducts a program of research to determine what types of messages are most effective in promoting condom use among adolescents. How would you classify this type of research?
Given the choice between distorting the world in order to enhance their self-esteem or viewing the world accurately, people often....
Put a slightly different spin on things in order to feel good about themselves
If the self-fulfilling prophecy operates appropriately, what could be the outcome of treating your new roommate as if he/she is polite, neat, and respectful?
The roommate will meet your expectations and behave politely and respectfully and keep his/her part of the room clean.
Which of the following is NOT one of the purposes of debriefing?
Educating the participants about the purpose of the research and the scientific process.