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Unit 3 The Civil War Years (1850-1865)
Terms in this set (67)
How did slavery cause the Civil War?
The states in the North and South couldn't agree on whether or not slavery should be allowed. The South wanted slavery, the North didn't.
rule by the people, by voting
Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Birth of the Republican Party
Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the Grand Old Party
North (Sumner) criticizes south, South (Brooks) retaliates and beats him with his cane.
abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Why did Southerners not like Lincoln and the Republicans?
The Republicans and Lincoln did not like slavery. The Southerners were afraid they wouldn't be able to keep slaves.
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
What was Lincoln's goal when the Civil War started?
Stop the spread of slavery
How did Lincoln's goal change as the Civil War progressed?
Save the United States
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. The book made more people, particularly Northerners, become anti-slavery.
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War
Led Confederates at Fort Sumter and Bull Run. Fort Sumter was the first battle of the Civil War.
Northern Major at Fort Sumter to the Southerners.
After 34 hours of fighting he surrenders.
The South wins the battle.
The Confederacy's 3 Best Generals
1. Robert E. Lee
2. Andrew "Stonewall" Jackson
First Bull Run/Manassas
an 1861 battle of the Civil War in which the South shocked the North with a victory
Camp Randall, Madison WI
Local spot where young men enlisted and were trained during the Civil War
Union Infantry Division made up of troops from Wisconsin and Indiana that fought for the Army of the Potomac. Named for the iron disposition of its fighting men. Suffered the heaviest casualties at Gettysburg.
George B McClellan
American army general put in charge of Union troops and later removed by Lincoln for failure to press Lee's Confederate troops in Richmond.
Robert E. Lee
Commander of the Confederate Army during the Civil War
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
Confederate general whose men stopped Union assault during the Battle of Bull Run. Confederacy won.
What did the North have to do to win?
Blockade (ring of ships around the port cities)
Split the Mississippi in two
Divide the South
What advantages did the North have?
1. More soldiers
2. More factories and shipyards
3. Better railroads
4. More money to spend on the war
What did the South have to do to win?
Get help from England
Have war in the East and West
What advantages did the South have?
1. fighting on their own land
2. top military leaders
3. had a cause (keeping slavery and their states rights)
Lincoln's biggest problem
54th Massachusetts Regiment
one of the first African American Regiment organized in the North
The campaign in 1862 in which McClellan tried to attack Richmond by using a route between the York and James Rivers.
What did the Northern Blockade do?
Kept vital supplies and troops from coming into the South. Hurt the confederacy.
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties. Ended the war, with the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation.
issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in Confederate states would be free.
New York Draft Riots
July 1863 just after the Battle at Gettysburg. Mobs of Irish working-class men and women roamed the streets for four days. They didn't like the idea of being drafted to fight a war on behalf of slaves who, once freed, would compete with them for jobs.
Battle of Fredricksburg
an 1862 Civil War battle in Virginia; one of the Union's worst defeats
Union General who replaced McClellan. He resigned his command voluntarily after his failure at the battle of Fredericksburg.
John S. Mosby
grey ghost- scout who raids union supply lines
Battle of Chancellorsville
The Union was defeated again with the Confederacy being led by Robert E. Lee. General Thomas Stonewall Jackson was accidentally wounded here by one of his own men.
Fighting Joe Hooker
Union- General of the Army of the Potomac Battle of Chancellorsville, relieved by George Meade Days before Gettysburg
Battle of Shiloh
(1862) a Civil War battle in Tennessee in which the Union army gained greater control over the Mississippi River valley
Ulysses S Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Lincoln's two qoutes about Grant
Battle of Vicksburg
1863, Union gains control of Mississippi, confederacy split in two, Grant takes lead of Union armies, total war begins.
Monitor vs. Merrimac
-March 1862, First Ironclad battle in history ends in a draw as the Merrimac withdraws after daylong exchange of fire. Union blockade of South is maintained.
Battle for Atlanta
(1864) General Sherman captured Atlanta, and, in a famous march through Georgia, destroyed everything in his path that may help the enemy. This action, plus the capture of Vicksburg, cut the South into three sections.
Election of 1864
Lincoln vs. McClellan, Lincoln wants to unite North and South, McClellan wants war to end if he's elected, citizens of North are sick of war so many vote for McClellan, Lincoln wins
a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
Prominent Copperhead who was an ex-congressman from Ohio, demanded an end to the war, and was banished to the Confederacy
very hard unsalted biscuit or bread
William T. Sherman and total war
Union General, destroyed all resources, "Sherman's March" basically pillaging 1865 Lee Surrenders
March to the Sea
Sherman's march through Georgia from Atlanta to Savannah from November 15 to December 21, 1864, during which Union soldiers carried out orders to destroy everything in their path.
Southern prison which treated Union soldiers so harshly that an average of 100 died each day. The commander of this camp was the only Confederate tried and executed for war crimes after the South lost.
Clara Barton and medical practices
Civil War diseases
Caused more deaths in the Civil War that gunshots
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
During the American Civil War he served as a Union general, rising from command of a brigade to the Army of the Potomac. He is best known for defeating Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863.
General George Pickett led a direct attack on Union troops during the 1863 Civil War battle at Gettysburg; the attack failed
Last campaign of the Civil war
Siege of Petersbur and the beginning of trench warfare
Battle of the Crater
Took place on July 30, 1864, between the Army of Northern Virginia, commanded by General Robert E. Lee and the Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. George Meade under the direct supervision of the general-in-chief, Lieut. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. A mining engineer from Pennsylvania in civilian life, proposed digging a long mine shaft underneath the Confederate lines and planting explosive charges directly underneath a fort (Elliott's Salient) in the middle of the Confederate First Corps line. The plan worked but Union actions after the explosion allowed the CS troops to massacre the US troops.
Lincoln's plan for after the war
Surrender at the Appomattox Court House
Why did the North win the Civil war?
more men and more resources
When was the Civil War?
the Civil War was fought from 1861-1865
John Wilkes Booth and the Lincoln Assassination
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