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41 terms

Psychology A Final Exam

Review key terms for the Final Exam
STUDY
PLAY
Psychology
study of behavior and mental processes
Phineas Gage
his serious brain injury resulted in an interest in studying how the brain affects personality
classical conditioning
method of learning in which a neutral stimulus can be used to elicit a response that is usually a natural response to a stimulus
stressors
agents in our environment that cause arousal of one's mind and body
Broca's area
structure of the brain that enables us to speak
cerebellum
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
B.F. Skinner
pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. he is famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of reinforcement on pidgeons and rats.
Neurobiological approach
looks for genetic and organic reasons to explain behavior
EEG
a scanning device that can record the electrical activity of the brain and denote stages of sleep
neurotransmitters
chemicals that bridge the synaptic gap
neuron
basic unit of the nervous system
transduction
process of changing physical stimulus to neural stimulus
extinction
a conditioning process in which the reinforcer is removed and a conditioned response becomes independent of the conditioned stimulus
teratogen
any agent that interferes with normal embryonic development: alcohol or thalidomide or X-rays or rubella are examples
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
bipolar disorder
a mental disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression
somatoform disorders
type of disorder that is characterized by complaints of physical symptoms that have no organic cause
lithium
drug that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of bipolar disorder
lobotomy
technique of severing the connections between the frontal lobe and the thalamus
concrete operational
Piaget's stage for children aged 7-11 that is characterized by increased logical thought and organization
hand washing
the most frequent compulsion that is exhibited in obsessive-compulsive disorder
scientific method
most important addition to psychology which allowed it to be considered a science
generativity
the task of adulthood, according to Erikson
pre-conventional
Kohlberg's stage of moral development in which rewards and punishments dominate moral thinking
systematic desensitization
a technique used in behavior therapy to treat phobias and other behavior problems involving anxiety
hippocampus
a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage; research has found that this area of the brain is affected by Alzheimer's
set
what a person comes to expect from a stimulus
opponent-process
red/green, yellow/blue, black/white. Explains afterimages.
mnemonic
pertaining to memory; assisting the memory; N: device, such as as formula or rhyme, used as a mnemonic aid
episodic memory
memory of specific personal events and situations (episodes) tagged with information about time
phobia
irrational fear that can bring about panic attacks
Dorthea Day
activist in the United States that advocated for better treatment for the mentally ill
Type A Personality
A theory used to describe a person with a significant number of traits focused on urgency, impatience, success, and excessive competition.
Eros and Thanatos
according to Freud, the two unconscious sources of energy that supply fuel to the formation of personality
rationalization
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
behaviorist approach
approach that focuses on rewards and punishments
chunking
the ability to expand short term memory by linking ideas and concepts together
frontal lobe
part of the brain that distinguishes the human qualities that we have over animals
sequence of memory
sensory, short term, long term
variable-ratio
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a varied number of responses
Wilhelm Wundt
set up the first laboratory to study behavior