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Terms in this set (38)

Logical Fallacies: a flaw in the rational properties of an argument or inference.
Hasty Generalization: a claim made on the basis of too little evidence; ex. Urging a ban on ibuprofen because some people have had liver problems with it.
Genetic Fallacy: occurs when someone assumes that the only "true" understanding of some idea, practice, or event is to be found in its origins-in its "genes," either literally or metaphorically; ex. Many people who defended slavery in the nineteenth century referred to biblical practices of slavery to support their claim.
Appeal to Ignorance: they depend on what we don't know; ex. We can't cure AIDS so let's just stop therapies until we learn more.
Bandwagon Fallacy: assumes that if everyone else is doing something, you should, too; ex. But Dad, all my friends are going.
Sequential Fallacy: arises from the assumption that if one event follows another, the first event must have caused the second; ex. Thunder and lightning do not cause rain, although the phenomena often occurs sequentially.
Begging the Question: rephrasing an idea and then offering it as its own reason; ex. Have you quit smoking on weekends?
Appeal to Authority: when someone who is popular but not an expert urges the acceptance of an idea or a product; ex. Television advertisers frequently ask consumers to purchase products because movie starts or sports heroes endorse them.
Name Calling: the general label for attacks on people instead of on their arguments; ex. Of course you're voting for O'Casey, you're Irish.
Speech of introduction: to arouse curiosity about the speaker and the subject in the minds of the listeners, so it will be easy to capture their attention and to motivate the audience to like and respect the speaker, so they'll tend to respond favorably to the forthcoming information or proposal; Guidelines=be brief, talk about the speaker, emphasize the importance of the speaker's subject, stress the appropriateness of the subject or the speaker, and use humor if it suits the occasion; ex. When introducing a classmate.
Speech of courtesy: to acknowledge the presence or qualities of the audience or member of the audience; Guidelines= indicate to whom you're speaking, present complementary facts about the person or persons to whom you are extending the courtesy, illustrate; don't argue; ex. Welcoming visitors, responding to a welcome or greeting, accepting awards, offering toasts.
After-dinner speech: listener enjoyment; Guidelines=deflecting an audience's antipathy toward the speaker or making the people in the audience feel more like a group, or it may offer deeper personal insight or a critique of society; ex. Telling humorous stories about the new age.
Acceptance speech: acknowledging the honor of receiving an award; Guidelines=accepting an award via a speech is a way of thanking the group and acknowledging the importance of the speech being recognized; ex. Individuals accepting Academy Awards.
Toast/speech of tribute: act of tribute; Guidelines=a group recognizes the achievements of an individual and expresses the hope that this person will continue to achieve distinction; ex. A toast to a newly married couple with a positive theme
Speech of welcome: when you extend a public greeting to guests or visiting groups; Guidelines=a way of introducing strangers into a group organization, giving them group approval, and making them feel more comfortable; ex. Field hockey announcer might greet the opposing team.