informal, similar to conversation. However, written style can often be a result of when language assumes a more complicated and formal style that more closely resembles written work. Written style usually indicates a formal occasion or weighty topic. Whereas good oral style makes perfectly clear what's being talked about.
How Oral Style differs from Written Style:
a. The average sentence is shorter in oral communication
b. You use fewer different words when you speak
c. You use a large number if short words, such as it and the when you speak.
d. You refer to people more often with words like I, you, me, our and us when you speak
e. You use more qualifying words, such as much, many, a lot, and most when you speak.
f. Your language choices are more informal when you speak, and you use more contractions
g. Three fundamental qualities for clean and effective oral style: accuracy, simplicity, and restatement
The affiliation cluster: companionship and affiliation, conformity, deference/dependence, sympathy/generosity, loyalty, tradition, reverence/worship, sexual attraction
The achievement cluster: acquisition/saving, success/display, prestige, pride, adventure/change, perseverance, creativity, curiousity, personal enjoyment
The power cluster: aggression, authority/dominance, defense, fear, autonomy/independence
They are a set of needs a person must fulfill in a certain order before moving on to the next.
Physiological needs: for food, drink, air, sleep, sex--the basic bodily "tisue" requirements.
Safety needs: for security, stability, protection from harm or injury; need for structure, orderliness, law predictability; freedom from fear and chaos.
Belongingness and love needs: for abiding devotion and warm affection with spouse, children, parents, ad close friends; need to feel a part of social groups; need for acceptance and approval.
Esteem needs: for self-esteem based on achievement, mastery, competence, freedom, independence; desire for esteem of others (reputation, prestige, recognition, status).
Self-actualization needs: for self-fulfillment, atually to become what you potentially can be; desire to actualize your capabilities; being true to your essential nature; what you can be you must be.
Speech of introduction: to arouse curiosity about the speaker and the subject in the minds of the listeners, so it will be easy to capture their attention and to motivate the audience to like and respect the speaker, so they'll tend to respond favorably to the forthcoming information or proposal; Guidelines=be brief, talk about the speaker, emphasize the importance of the speaker's subject, stress the appropriateness of the subject or the speaker, and use humor if it suits the occasion; ex. When introducing a classmate.
Speech of courtesy: to acknowledge the presence or qualities of the audience or member of the audience; Guidelines= indicate to whom you're speaking, present complementary facts about the person or persons to whom you are extending the courtesy, illustrate; don't argue; ex. Welcoming visitors, responding to a welcome or greeting, accepting awards, offering toasts.
After-dinner speech: listener enjoyment; Guidelines=deflecting an audience's antipathy toward the speaker or making the people in the audience feel more like a group, or it may offer deeper personal insight or a critique of society; ex. Telling humorous stories about the new age.
Acceptance speech: acknowledging the honor of receiving an award; Guidelines=accepting an award via a speech is a way of thanking the group and acknowledging the importance of the speech being recognized; ex. Individuals accepting Academy Awards.
Toast/speech of tribute: act of tribute; Guidelines=a group recognizes the achievements of an individual and expresses the hope that this person will continue to achieve distinction; ex. A toast to a newly married couple with a positive theme
Speech of welcome: when you extend a public greeting to guests or visiting groups; Guidelines=a way of introducing strangers into a group organization, giving them group approval, and making them feel more comfortable; ex. Field hockey announcer might greet the opposing team.