Chapter 9 Psych
Terms in this set (44)
the positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular, special individual
behavior that takes place during a critical period and involves attachment to the first moving object that is observed
the preference for the warm cloth monkey
Ainsworth Strange Situation
consists of a sequence of staged episodes that illustrate the strength of attachment between a child and (typically) his or her mother
Secure attachment pattern
2/3 of children. Act fine as long as the mother is present, exploring the room. May or may not appear upset when she leaves, but immediately goes to her when she retuns to seek contact.
Avoidant attachment pattern
20% of children. Does not seek proximity to the mother and after she has left they do not seem upset, Avoids he when she returns.
Ambivalent attachment pattern
10-15% of children. Combination of positive and negative reactions to the mother. Remains close to the mother, anxious about her leaving even before she does. Becomes very upset after she leaves and seeks to be close to her when she returns, but begins to hit or kick out of anger.
Disorganized-Disoriented attatchment pattern
5-10% of children. Inconsistent, contradictory, and confused behavior. They may run to the mother when she returns but not look at her, or seem initially calm and thensuddenly break into angry weeping.
Reactive attachment disorder
a psychological problem characterized by extreme problems in forming attachments to others.
neurons that fire not only when an individual enacts a particular behavior, but also when the individual simply observes another organism carrying out the same behavior
theory of mind
their understanding and belies of how the mind operates
the nonverbal expression of emotion that is fairly consistent among people of all ages
the caution and wariness displayed by infants when encoutering an unfamilar person
the distress displayed by infants when a customary care provider departs
a baby's smile in response to another person, rather than to nonhuman stimuli
the intentional search for information about others' feelings to help explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances and events
a psychological disorder that produces significant language and emotional difficulties
located in the brain's temporal lobe, is central to the experience of emotions. It produces a link between the perception of an emotion-producing stimulus and later memory of that stimulus
a part of the brain that is involved in the storage of memories
the ability to adjust emotions to a desired state and level of intensity
a full-blown psychological disorder, which is severe and lingers for long periods
patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual
the sum total of the enduring characteristics that differentiate one individual from another
40% of infants. Has a positive disposition. Their body functions operate regularly, and they are adaptable. They show curiosity about new situations, and their emotions are moderate or low in intensity.
10% of infants. Has more negatives moods and are slow to adapt to new situations. When confronted with a new situation, they tend to withdraw.
15% of infants. Are inactive, showing relatively calm reactions to their environment. Their moods are generally negative, and they withdraw from new situations, adapting slowly.
Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
the theory that considers how individuals come to understand themselves and the meaning of others', and their own, behavior.
according to Erikson, the period during which infants develop a sense of trust or mistrust, largely depending on how well their needs are met by their caregivers.
the period during which toddlers (aged 18 months to 3 years) develop independence and autonomy if they are allowed the freedom to explore, or shame and self-doubt if they are restricted and overprotected
the period during which children aged 3-6 years experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negtive results of that action
the period from age 6-12 characterized by a focus on efforts to attain competence in meeting the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and other complexities of the modern world.
the period during which teenagers seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves
the period of postadolescence into the early 30s that focuses on develoing close relationships with others
the stage during middle adulthood in which people consider their contributions to family and society
final stage of life, characterized by a process of looking back over one's life, evaluating it, and coming to terms with it
the theory that those in old age must redefine themselves in ways that do not relate to their work roles or occupations
a period in which people must learn to cope with and move beyond changes in physical capabilities as a result of ageing.
ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation
the period in which elderly people must come to grips with their coming death
The Big Five Personality Traits
Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
a person's level of curiosity and interest in new experiences
a person's tendencies to be organized and responsible
how outgoing or shy a person is
how easygoing and helpful a person tends to be
the degree to which a person is moody, anxious, and self-critical