A&P Sensory System

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Terms in this set (...)

Mechanoreceptors
Changes in pressure or movement of fluids...
Ex: Hearing and equilibrium
Suppression amblyopia
Lazy eye
Refraction
The bending of light waves.
Referred pain
Pain that feels like it is coming from a different area other than the site where it originates
Retina
Layer of eyeball that contains the photoreceptors, includes the macula lutea & fovea centralis
Iris
Contains the radial and circular muscles; mydriasis and miosis
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Lens
Shape of this structure determined by ciliary muscles; refracts light
Choroid
Layer of the eyeball that provides the blood supply for the retina
Aqueous Humor
Secreted by the ciliary body and drained by the canal of Schlemm
Vitreous Humor
Gel-like substance in the posterior cavity; maintains the shape of the eye and helps hold the retina in place.
Cornea
Window of the eye;
- an avascular structure that allows light to enter the eye
- anterior extension of the sclera
Conjunctiva
Inner lining of the lids; pink eye
External ear
Home of the cerumen
- Separated from the middle ear by the tympanic membrane
Middle EAR
Contains the malleus, incus, and stapes
- Connected to the pharynx by the eustachian tube
- Separated from the inner ear by the oval window
- Bone conduction deafness
Inner ear
Location of the organ of Corti and CN VIII
- Cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule
- Endolymph and perilmph; mechanoreceptors
- Nerve conduction deafness
The retina
contains rods and cones
Consequence of diminished blood flow to the choroid is
the retina dies
A drug or effect that is described as mydriatic
dilates the pupil
The organ of Corti
is the receptor for hearing
Touch, pressure, pain, and temperature are
classified as general senses
Cranial nerves III, IV, and VI
Innervate the extrinsic eye muscles
Extrinsic eye muscles
Superior oblique, inferior oblique, superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, and lateral rectus
Eyelids
Levator palpebrae, CN III, and Ptosis, causing "sleepy" appearance
Nociceptors
Receptors for pain
- Consist of free nerve endings that are stimulated by tissue damage
Proprioception
sense of orientation or position
- allows you to locate a body part without looking
Hole in retina
sudden appearance or increased floaters " muscae volitantes"
Suppression amblyopia
blindness from lazy eye
Pain
Sensation you feel if you immerse your hand in boiling water
Sclera
Outermost layer of posterior eyeball
Choroid
Middle tunic; rich blood supply to retina
Projection
is most related to phantom limb pain
Olfactory receptors
adapt most rapidly
Pain
is most related to spinothalamatic tract, thalamus, and nociceptors
Receptors for the gustatory sense
are located on the tongue
Tears
prevent corneal ulceration
Refraction
accomplished when light waves are bent.
All the extrinsic eye muscles
Move the eyeball in the socket
Retina
is the nervous layer of the eye
Errors of refraction
myopia, astigmatism, hyperopia
Ossicles located in the middle ear
malleus, incus, and stapes
Optic chiasm
Fibers of the optic nerve of each eye cross and project to the opposite side of the brain
When the drainage of the canal of Schlemm is impaired
intraocular pressure increases
Night vision
is most associated with rods.
Organ of Corti
is most related to the sense of hearing
Mydriasis
is the result of contraction of the radial muscles of the eye
Most related to middle ear
Eustachian tube, malleus, incus, and stapes; cochlea
Ototoxicity
is damage to the cochlear nerve
Presbyopia
is the reflex ability of the lens to change its shape as an object moves closer to the eye.
A disturbance in vision
is because the pituitary gland is located behind the optic chiasm, a pituitary tumor causes
Most descriptive of Organ of Corti
Mechanoreceptors, cochlea, & inner ear
Semicircular canal
is a balance related inner ear structure
Eustachian tube
connects pharynx with the middle ear
Uvea
describes choroid, ciliary muscle, and iris
Meibomian glands
glands that secrete oily substance that coats the outer surface of the anterior eyeball and reduces the evaporation of tears.
Iris
contains the radial muscle & circular muscle
Trochlear nerve
The meaning of 4 in LR6SO4
Abducens nerve
The meaning of 6 in LR6SO4
Facial nerve
Impaired nerve function that diminishes lacrimation and the ability to close the eye
Circular muscle
Muscle contracts to cause a miotic effect
Radial muscle
Muscle contracts to cause mydriasis
Orbicularis oculi
Muscle that closes the eye
Oculomotor nerve
Nerve controls all extrinsic eye muscles except lateral rectus and superior oblique
Presbyopia
Error of refraction described by an older adult who says that his or her arms are getting shorter
Hordeolum
Staphylococci infection along the eyelid; sty
Choked disc
Swelling of optic disc (indication of increased intracranial pressure)
Myopia
Nearsightedness
Strabismus
Crossed eyes
Glaucoma
Disease characterized by increased intraocular pressure
- Consequence of impaired drainage of aqueous humor
Detached retina
Nervous inner layer of eye falls away from the choroid and deprived of an adequate blood supply
Cataracts
Clouding of lens that impairs the transmission of light
Adaptation
Sensory adaptation is another characteristic of sensation; smell
Proprioceptors
are located primarily in the muscles, tendons, and joints
Intrinsic eye muscles
control the size of the pupil and shape of the lens for refraction
External ear
Where swimmer's ear occurs
Middle ear
Where otitis media and "glue ear" occur
Ischemia is most likely to
stimulate nociceptors.
Optic chiasm
cannot be seen when observing the external eye & accessory visual structures
Glaucoma
Most likely to experience permanent loss of vision
- Leading cause of retinal damage and blindness
- Treatment is aimed at decreasing the formation of aqueous humor through the canal of Schlemm
Contraction of the ciliary muscles
affects refraction
Mydriatic
dilates the pupil
Miosis
constricts
Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist
causes pupillary dilation
Optic chiasm
located in the visual pathway anterior to the pituitary gland
Cataracts
decrease the amount of light that enters the eye
Canals of Schlemm or Venous sinuses
Aqueous humor leaves the anterior cavity by way of tiny canals located at the junction of the sclera and the cornea.
Ciliary muscles
attach to the suspensory ligaments, which in turn tug on the lens, causing the lens to change it's shape
Fovea centralis
The area of the retina that contains the highest concentration of cones
- Is it considered the area of most acute vision
Macula lutea
An area in the center of a yellow spot
Optic disc
Small circular area of the retina is in the back of the eye.. The neurons of the retina converge there to form the optic nerve. It contains no rods or cones
- AKA the blind spot
Mechanoreceptors
Cells contain hairlike projections immersed in gel-like fluid within the vestibule and & semicircular canals.
Semicircular canals
Provide information about position of the body as it moves about
- Sense the changing positions of the head